81. Which of the following are key components of a Total Quality Management system?
A. Individual responsibility, incremental improvement, use of raw data
B. Collective responsibility, continual improvement, use of raw data
C. Group responsibility, staged improvement, knowledge
D. Involves everyone, continual improvement, use of data and knowledge
82. What is premise control based on?
83. What is the term for the monitoring of events both internal and external to the organisation that affects strategy?
A. Operational control
B. Strategic surveillance
C. Strategic control
D. Environmental scanning
84. What are the main characteristics of an effective control system?
A. Flexibility, accuracy, timeliness and objectivity
B. Flexibility, measurability, timeliness and objectivity
C. Flexibility, accuracy, relevance and objectivity
D. Flexibility, accuracy, timeliness and relevance
85. What are characteristics of a programmed decision?
A. Complex and risky
B. Uncertain and non-routine
C. Low risk and certain
D. Routine and non-complex
86. Of what is an investment decision an example?
A. Programmed decision
B. Routine decision
C. Management decision
D. Non-programmed decision
87. What is not an assumption underpinning the rational decision making model?
A. Incomplete information
B. An agreed goal
C. A structured problem
D. High level of certainty regarding the environment
88. Simon (1960) is associated with what type of decision making model?
89. What is the term for decisions limited by human capacity to absorb and analyse information?
A. Cognitive rationality
B. Conscious rationality
C. Bounded rationality
D. Restricted rationality
90. What is the term for a sub-optimal but acceptable outcome of negotiations between parties?