221. Which one of these statements is correct?
A. Traditionally, entry methods have tended to be classified along a risk/reward continuum.
B. Traditionally, entry methods have tended to be classified along a risk/control continuum.
C. Traditionally, entry methods have tended to be classified along a control/threat continuum.
D. Traditionally, entry methods have tended to be classified along a risk/threat continuum.

222. Kozinets et al. (2002) identify the three key characteristics of flagship stores as:
A. they carry only a single brand of product; they are never company owned; they operate with the intention of building brand image rather than solely to generate profit for the company.
B. they carry only a single brand of product; they are company owned; they operate with the intention of building brand image rather than solely to generate profit for the company.
C. they carry only a single brand of product; they are company owned; they operate with the sole intention of generating profit for the company.
D. they carry a wide range of brands including those of rival companies; they are company owned; they operate with the sole intention of generating profit for the company.

223. Organic growth is defined as new store development within the existing or an integrated organizational framework. Two other terms used to describe organic growth are:
A. Self-start entry and exporting
B. Internal expansion and acquisition
C. Internal expansion and self-start entry
D. Internet growth

224. In India, single brand foreign retailers can own:
A. a maximum of 51 per cent of a joint venture, with multiple brand retailers allowed to set up only wholesale or franchise operations.
B. a maximum of 49 per cent of a joint venture, with multiple brand retailers allowed to set up only wholesale or franchise operations.
C. a maximum of 51 per cent of a joint venture, with multiple brand retailers not allowed to set up wholesale or franchise operations.
D. a maximum of 25 per cent of a joint venture, with multiple brand retailers allowed to set up only wholesale or franchise operations.

225. A concession, also known as ‘a store within a store’, is often:
A. one of the last ways an international retailer normally chooses to enter an international market as it maximizes the firm’s risk and commitment in the market.
B. one of the first ways an international retailer can enter an international market while minimizing the firm’s risk and commitment in the market.
C. one of the first ways an international retailer can enter an international market while maximizing the firm’s risk and commitment in the market.
D. one of the first ways an international retailer can enter an international market while maximizing the firm’s risk and minimizing commitment in the market.

226. Logistics is:
A. the management of the entire supply chain, from production to the delivery of product to the consumer.
B. the management of the production aspects of the supply chain.
C. the management of that part of the supply chain that deals with moving goods from the retailer to the consumer.
D. the management of that part of the supply chain that deals with moving goods from the wholesaler to the retailer.

227. Fernie, Pfab, and Marchant (2000) delineate four stages in the development of the grocery supply chain in the UK. These are:
A. Supplier control (pre-1980); centralization (1981-9); just-in-time (1990-5); relationship (1995-present)
B. Supplier control (pre-1980); just-in-time (1981-9); centralization (1990-5); relationship (1995-present)
C. Supplier control (pre-1980); relationship (1981-9); centralization (1990-5); just-in-time (1995-present).
D. Supplier control (pre-1900); centralization (1901-89); just-in-time (1990-5); relationship (1995-present).

228. ECR Europe defines ECR as:
A. a national movement in the grocery industry focusing on the total supply chain-suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers, working close together to fulfil the changing demand of the grocery consumer better, faster and at less cost.
B. a global movement in the fashion industry focusing on the total supply chain-suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers, working close together to fulfil the changing demand of the grocery consumer better, faster and at less cost.
C. a global movement in the grocery industry focusing on the total supply chain-suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers, working close together to fulfil the changing demand of the grocery consumer better, faster and at less cost.
D. a localized movement in the grocery industry focusing on the total supply chain-suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers, working close together to fulfil the changing demand of the grocery consumer better, faster and at less cost.

229.Christopher, Lowson, and Peck (2004) determine that fashion markets are characterized by:
A. short lifecycles; high volatility; low predictability; high impulse purchasing.
B. short lifecycles; low volatility; low predictability; high impulse purchasing.
C. short lifecycles; high volatility; high predictability; high impulse purchasing.
D. long lifecycles; high volatility; low predictability; high impulse purchasing.

230. Christopher, Lowson, and Peck (2004) determine three critical lead times that characterize fashion supply chains:
A. Time-to-market; time-to-order; time-to-react
B. Time-to-market; time-to-serve; time-to-react
C. Time-to-market; time-to-sell; time-to-react
D. Time-to-think; time-to-serve; time-to-react

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