851. Strategy evaluation at the_____________ level involves using specific performance measures-qualitative and quantitative-for each functional area.
A. organizational
B. operational
C. functional
D. production

852. Decentralisation of an organization is commanded on account of which of the following advantages?
A. Executive development
B. Improvement of morale
C. Reduced burden on top executives
D. All of the above

853. ‘Matrix organisation’ refers to a term of
A. Organisation where authority and responsibility coexist
B. Mathematical arrangement of events in columns and rows
C. Organisation in which two or more basic types of departmentation are combined
D. None of the above

854. Which one of the following formulae is used to calculate “Cross Relationship” under span of control?
A. n (2n/2 + n -1)
B. n (2n/2 – 1)
C. n (n – 1)
D. None of the above

855. Which of the following is not an advantage of MBO?
A. Self control
B. Better appraisal
C. Employee commitment
D. Success without planning

856. Motivational process and not the motivators as such is associated with the
A. ERG Theory
B. Two-factor theory
C. Expectancy theory
D. Need hierarchy theory

857. Which one of the following is the oldest form of organization?
A. Departmentation
B. Staff organization
C. Functional organization
D. Line and Staff organization

858. The potential disadvantage of MBO is
A. The additional commitment to the organisation
B. Its over-emphasis on production and productivity
C. The absence of short-term and long-term planning
D. Its inability to control progress of work and achievement of results

859. In line and staff organisation, the authority lies in
A. Line
B. Staff
C. Both line and staff
D. None of the above

860. Which of the following functions is known as the essence of management?
A. Control
B. Planning
C. Organising
D. Co-ordinating

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