231. Segmentation provides a means of:
A. measuring and hence building an understanding of the market and thereby facilitating the positioning of a consumer group and the subsequent targeting of the retailer with respect to the competition.
B. measuring and hence building an understanding of the market and thereby facilitating the targeting of a consumer group and the subsequent positioning of the retailer with respect to the competition.
C. measuring and hence building an understanding of the market and thereby facilitating the targeting of a consumer group and the subsequent positioning of the retailer with respect to the competition.
D. estimating and hence building an understanding of the market and thereby facilitating the targeting of a consumer group and the subsequent positioning of the retailer with respect to the competition.

232. Kotler (1988: 308) defines positioning as:
A. the act of designing the company’s image and value offer so that the segment’s customers understand and appreciate what competitors represent in relation to each other.
B. the act of changing the company’s image and value offer so that certain customers understand and appreciate what the company stands for in relation to its competitors.
C. the act of designing the company’s image and value offer so that the segment’s customers understand and appreciate what the company stands for in relation to its competitors.
D. the act of image building on the basis of the chief executive’s understanding and belief in what the company stands for in relation to its competitors.

233. The criteria of Davies (1992) for retail brand status are well established as a benchmark. The retail brand must:
A. be differentiated within the competitive environment; have an image of quality that commands a price premium; never have a separate existence to the corporation that would facilitate licensing; provide a symbolic value to the customer.
B. be differentiated within the competitive environment; have an image of quality that commands a price premium; have a separate existence to the corporation that would facilitate licensing; provide a symbolic value to the customer.
C. be undifferentiated within the competitive environment; have an image of quality that commands a price premium; have a separate existence to the corporation that would facilitate licensing; provide a symbolic value to the customer.
D. be differentiated within the company’s merchandise range; have an image of quality that commands a price premium; have a separate existence to the corporation that would facilitate licensing; provide a symbolic value to the customer.

234. Bridson and Evans (2004) suggest that when building brands fashion retailers can particularly benefit from focusing on four key advantages:
A. Merchandise advantage; customer service advantage; customer communication advantage; location advantage.
B. Merchandise advantage; price advantage; customer communication advantage; trading format advantage.
C. Merchandise advantage; customer service advantage; customer communication advantage; trading format advantage.
D. Location advantage; customer service advantage; customer communication advantage; trading format advantage.

235. Balmer and Greyser (2006) outline corporate branding with reference to six ‘C’s:
A. Character, culture, communication, commonalities, constituencies, and covenants.
B. Character, culture, communication, conceptualizations, constituencies, and covenants.
C. Character, corporate, communication, conceptualizations, constituencies, and covenants.
D. Charisma, culture, communication, conceptualizations, constituencies, and covenants.

236. Alexander, Quinn, and Cairns (2005: 8) define international retail divestment as:
A. company actions resulting in a reduced presence in a foreign market. This may take the form of closure of stores, sale of store chain, termination of a business contract/agreement (joint venture/franchising and so on) or organisational restructuring in the form of changing from corporate ownership to a franchising or licensing or distribution agreement. Divestment may or may not involve market exit.
B. company actions resulting in a reduced presence in a foreign market. This always takes the form of closure of stores, sale of store chain, termination of a business contract/agreement (joint venture/franchising and so on) or organisational restructuring in the form of changing from corporate ownership to a franchising or licensing or distribution agreement. Divestment always involves market exit.
C. company actions resulting in an increased presence in a foreign market. This may take the form of opening of stores, sale of store chain, termination of a business contract/agreement (joint venture/franchising and so on) or organisational restructuring in the form of changing from corporate ownership to a franchising or licensing or distribution agreement. Divestment never involves market exit.
D. Competitors’ actions that bring about a reduced presence in a foreign market. This may take the form of closure of stores, sale of store chain, termination of a business contract/agreement (joint venture/franchising and so on) or organisational restructuring in the form of changing from corporate ownership to a franchising or licensing or distribution agreement. Divestment may or may not involve market exit.

237. Chow and Hamilton (1993) originally classified the growing literature on domestic divestment into three strands based on the domain from which the work was emanating:
A. industrial organization, finance, and corporate strategy.
B. industrial organization, market exit and corporate strategy.
C. industrial organisation, finance and international marketing strategy.
D. industrialization, finance, and corporate strategy.

238. Much international divestment research claims that:
A. franchises are more likely to be divested than other modes of entry.
B. acquisitions are more likely to be divested than other modes of entry.
C. concessions are more likely to be divested than other modes of entry.
D. Organically grown chains are more likely to be divested than other modes of entry.

239. Antecedents to divestment are concerned with:
A. The process of divestment
B. The reasons for divestment
C. The barriers to divestment
D. What happens after divestment occurs

240. The concept of escalating commitment, whereby a firm continues with a course of action that is not producing results (Matthyssens and Pauwels, 2000) is:
A. not at all evident in the examples of international divestment by Marks & Spencer, Boots, Tesco, and Ahold.
B. evident in the examples of international divestment by Marks & Spencer, Boots, Tesco, and Ahold
C. evident in the examples of international divestment by Marks & Spencer and Boots, but not Tesco and Ahold
D. Not evident among retail operations.

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