161. The brand of BP is an example of what type of brand name?
A. Expressive
B. Free-standing
C. Abbreviated
D. Descriptive

162. Consumer values based on personality types are a form of what type of brand value?
A. Core
B. Functional
C. Expressive
D. Individual

163. What is the term for gaining consumers’ express agreement to receive marketing material?
A. Opt-in marketing
B. Permission marketing
C. Targeted marketing
D. Focused marketing

164. What does CRM stand for?
A. Consumer Relations Management
B. Customer Relationship Marketing
C. Customer Relationship Management
D. Consumer Returns Management

165. Which one is not part of Lewin’s (1952) three step approach to change?
A. Changing behaviour
B. Initiating change
C. Freezing
D. Unfreezing

166. What is the term for a radical rethinking of the nature of the business?
A. Transformational change
B. Revolutionary change
C. Strategic manoeuvre
D. Paradigm shift

167. What is the term for incremental changes to processes in an organisation using information technology?
A. Business Process Improvement
B. Business Process Reengineering
C. Business Process Change
D. Business Process Advance

168. What is the first step in a ‘Stage gate’ process?
A. Develop a product.
B. Demonstrate a plan.
C. Initiate learning.
D. Generate ideas and concepts.

169. Which is not an example of an external factor for learning and knowledge?
A. Demographic change
B. Political influences
C. Organisational structure
D. Social change

170. What is the term for the phenomenon that a new IT system is implemented across the whole organisation simultaneously?
A. Immersed approach
B. Plunge approach
C. Parallel approach
D. Instant approach