181. Which of the following is correct? Linder (1961) identified a fundamental difference in the trade of:
A. Primary and service sector products
B. Retail and manufactured products
C. Primary and manufactured products
D. Primary and retail products

182. Vernon (1966) identified the importance of:
A. the market of origin in determining the characteristics of the product.
B. the market of destination in determining the characteristics of the product.
C. the host market in determining the characteristics of the product.
D. the global marketplace in determining the characteristics of the product.

183. The eclectic paradigm proposes that international production is contingent on three sets of advantages:
A. Marketing Advantages, Management Advantages, and Internalization Advantages
B. Ownership Advantages, Locational Advantages, and Internalization Advantages
C. Ownership Advantages, Locational Advantages, and Internationalization Advantages
D. Retailing Advantages, Locational Advantages, and Internalization Advantages

184. The stages theory of the firm is sometimes known as:
A. The Linder Model
B. The Uppsala Model
C. The New York Model
D.The Dunning Model

185. How many categories of international retailers did Hollander (1970) suggest?
A. Four
B. Five
C. Six
D. Seven

186. Treadgold observed (1988) that:
A. high cost entry strategies allow retailers to retain high control over their non-domestic operation while low cost entry strategies will demand the loss of some control.
B. low cost entry strategies allow retailers to retain high control over their non-domestic operation while high cost entry strategies will demand the loss of some control.
C. high cost entry strategies allow retailers to retain a medium level of control over their non-domestic operation while low cost entry strategies will demand the loss of all control.
D. high cost entry strategies allow retailers to retain low control over their non-domestic operation while low cost entry strategies will allow the retention of high control.

187. What were the three fundamental strategies identified by Salmon and Tordjman (1989)?
A. Global, multinational, and transnational
B. Global, multinational, and investment
C. Global, proximate, and multinational
D. Acquired, global and multinational

188. Simpson and Thorpe’s (1995) PLIN model referred to four factors. What were they?
A. Product, Lifestyle, Image, and Niche
B. Product, Language, Internationalization, and Niche
C. Product, Language, Internalization, and Niche
D. Product, Language, Image, and Niche

189. What are the five factors identified by Vida, Reardon, and Fairhurst (2000) that they suggest act as determinants of international retail involvement?
A. Competitive advantages, international knowledge, experience in the domestic market, management attitudes, retailer size
B. Competitive advantages, internal knowledge, international experience, management attitudes, retailer size
C. Competitive advantages, international knowledge, international experience, marketing attitudes, retailer size
D. Competitive advantages, international knowledge, international experience, management attitudes, retailer size

190. The Q ratio shows the relationship between capitalization and asset value. Therefore, if a company scores above one or, to express it another way, parity, it has managed to:
A. generate intangible value such as brand value, which means the retailer is worth, or capitalization is considered to be, more than its simple stock of tangible assets.
B. generate tangible value such as brand value, which means the retailer is worth, or capitalization is considered to be, more than its simple stock of tangible assets.
C. generate intangible value which means that the retailer is worth more than the stock of its intangible assets.
D. generate intangible value which means that the retailer is worth less than the stock of its intangible assets.

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