71. Who of the following is a leading writer on contingency theory of leadership?
A. Rosabeth Kanter
B. Joan Woodward
C. Rensis Likert
D. Fred Fiedler

72. Which one of the following political leaders could not be termed a ‘transformational’ leader?
A. Margaret Thatcher
B. Mikhail Gorbachov
C. Nelson Mandela
D. Bill Clinton

73. What are the key characteristics of transactional leaders?
A. Guiding, mentoring and motivating
B. Guiding, commanding and motivating
C. Guiding, demonstrating and motivating
D. Guiding, mentoring and demonstrating

74. What is the term for power derived from status or position in an organisation?
A. Referent
B. Expert
C. Reward
D. Legitimate

75. When a manager monitors the work performance of workers in his department to determine if the quality of their work is ‘up to standard’, this manager is engaging in which function?
A. Planning
B. Controlling
C. Organising
D. Leading

76. What do you call the understanding of a dominant culture before choosing a suitable control system?
A. Market control
B. Bureaucratic control
C. Clan control
D. People control

77. What is the first step in a control process?
A. Allocate resources
B. Choose key personnel for the task
C. Select a strategy
D. Set standards

78. What is the weakest form of control?
A. Pre-control
B. Simultaneous control
C. Post-control
D. Duel control

79. Improving quality through small, incremental improvements is a characteristic of what type of quality management system?
A. Just-in-time
B. Six Sigma
C. Total Quality Management
D. Kaizen

80. Where was Total Quality Management first developed?
C. Japan
D. Korea