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151. purpose of a reference group is to serve a(n) ?
A. normative function by enforcing standards of conduct and belief
B. comparison function by serving as a standard against which people can measure themselves and other
C. elimination function by dissolving groups that no longer have a social purpose
D. both a and b
152. __________ groups often emerge in the workplace among those who share special understandings about their occupation ?
D. formal organizations
153. Which of these is not a feature of an ideal type bureaucracy according to Weber ?
A. a clear-cut hierarchy of authority
B. co-ownership among all workers of the material resource with which they operate
C. fixed salaries associated with each role
D. written rules governing conduct
154. Which of these is a feature of the Japanese style of management arrangements ?
A. merging of work and private lives
B. job security
C. group-oriented production
D. all of the above
155. The iron law of oligarchy refers to_____________?
A. regimes that use repression against their population
B. the exclusion of women from the highest levels of politics
C. the tendency for power inevitably to flow towards top
D. the legal system of the former communist countries
156. Who is most closely associated with the view that the equal and impartial treatment of each case is a strength of bureaucracies ?
A. Michel Foucault
B. Paul Gay
C. Zygmunt Bauman
D. Robert Michels
157. Which one of these would not be regarded as a dysfunction of bureaucracy according to Merton ?
A. the rules could be upheld at all cost even in the face of a better solution
B. people know they should be guaranteed fair and consistent treatment
C. adherence to the rules takes precedence over organizational goals
D. workers are not encouraged to be flexible in making decisions
158. De Gournay coined the phrase an illness of bureau mania to describe ?
A. the chaos of informal organizations
B. the compulsion to work in offices
C. the developing power of officials
D. politicians abuse of power and influence
159. Paul du Gay’s (2000) In Praise of Bureaucracy makes two important points in defense of bureaucratic forms of organization Which two points are they? A bureaucratic ethos ?
A. is compatible with private sector values and includes impartial and equal treatment for all
B. ensures administrative responsibility for the public interest and includes impartial and equal treatment for all
C. ensures that politicians goals can be met even against opposition and ensures administrative responsibility for the public interest
D. is compatible with private sector values and ensures that politicians goals can be met even against opposition