851. Industrial production in the nineteenth century was characterized by:
A. increasing numbers of women in high status positions
B. cottage industries and homeworkers doing piecework in the domestic sphere
C. the ‘managerial revolution’ by which ownership and control became separate
D. power-driven machinery and the concentration of workers in large workplaces

852. Marx (1844) claimed that capitalism had alienated workers from:
A. the product they were making
B. the production process
C. each other and humanity in general
D. all of the above

853. The ‘extension pattern’ that Parker (1976) identified was said to be:
A. the lifestyle of clerical and unskilled manual workers, who saw leisure time as a chance to escape from alienating work
B. characteristic of professionals and skilled workers, whose work interests spilled over into leisure time
C. a neutral balance between work and leisure as neither connected nor oppositional, as evidenced by semi-skilled manual and clerical workers
D. the tendency of students to leave essay-writing until the last minute and then ask for an extended deadline

854. Which of the following is not a problem associated with official statistics on strike action?
A. most strikes go unnoticed by employers and the mass media
B. not all industrial disputes will be reported by the employer
C. the definition of strikes excludes those that involve fewer than ten workers or last less than one day
D. it is hard to compare strikes that were measured in different ways

855. Which of the following industries did Blauner (1964) suggest was most alienating to its employees?
A. machine-based factory work
B. textile work as craft production
C. car manufacturing in assembly plants
D. chemical processing with automated practices

856. With industrial capitalism, leisure emerged as a concept that meant:
A. distinct periods of non-work and relaxation
B. regulated and organized activities to reduce social disorder
C. the growth of civic, municipal culture through public libraries, museums and art galleries
D. all of the above

857. The ‘post-industrial society’ identified by Bell (1973) involved:
A. the increasing power of trade unions in resolving industrial disputes
B. a resurgence of interest in industrial production and manufacturing
C. a shift towards a service economy, based on knowledge and information
D. all of the above

858. Which of the following was not a strategy used by the Conservative government of 1979 to reduce the power of the labour movement?
A. making all strike action illegal
B. imposing restrictions on picketing
C. banning political strikes that were not primarily concerned with the worker’s own conditions of work
D. making secondary action (in support of workers elsewhere) illegal

859. According to Hakim (1995, 1996), the majority of part-time work is done by women because:
A. part-time jobs pay relatively high wages and so are financially beneficial
B. they make a rational choice to combine employment with their ‘home-centred’ lives
C. their choices are constrained by structural factors, such as being unable to afford childcare
D. full time work is not available in the kinds of occupations that they want to enter

860. Telework is a form of employment that involves:
A. running one’s own business through telephone helplines or hotlines
B. working at home for an outside employer, using information technology
C. babysitting and other jobs within a local network, through the informal economy
D. combining non-manual work with the leisure activity of watching television