821. Marx said that the development of the labour movement through factory-based production would turn the working class into:
A. a class in itself
B. a class by itself
C. a class for itself
D. a ruling class

822. The term ‘hegemony’ refers to:
A. the tendency for the working class not to realize their own interests
B. a dominant ideology that legitimates economic, political and cultural power
C. a form of dual consciousness based on ideology and everyday experiences
D. a mode of payment given for outstanding topiary

823. Mosca and Pareto identified the ruling elite as:
A. a minority group who fill all the top positions of political authority
B. a coalition of social forces with specific skills and abilities
C. a group who circulate between high status positions and exclude others
D. all of the above

824. Butler & Stokes (1969) suggested that working class support for the Labour Party arose from:
A. socialization into working class families and communities
B. rational calculation of self-interest
C. issue-based concerns about culture and lifestyle
D. false consciousness and the acceptance of hegemonic values

825. Which of the following did Dom hoff not identify as a process of decision-making in the USA?
A. the ideology process
B. the exploitation process
C. the policy-formation process
D. the candidate-selection process

826. Scott (1991) introduced the term ‘power elite’ to describe:
A. the ruling class, or bourgeoisie, who exploit the proletariat
B. a capitalist class dependent on property ownership and advantaged life chances
C. an alignment of classes with shared interests but no state power
D. a state elite whose members are drawn overwhelmingly from a power bloc

827. Which of the following is not a characteristic of totalitarian societies?
A. indoctrination and propaganda
B. freedom of movement for citizens
C. one-party rule
D. a centrally planned economy

828. The case of the former Soviet Union supports Kerr et al.’s (1960) claim that:
A. totalitarian regimes are incompatible with the requirements of advanced industrial technology
B. democratic governments serve the interests of a ruling elite
C. advanced industrial technology strengthens the power of totalitarian regimes
D. communist societies disperse power between various political parties

829. Pluralist theories suggest that:
A. the state’s power can be exercised through several different administrative structures
B. the ruling elite is composed of people from various class backgrounds
C. political parties must compete for the votes of ‘consumers’ in the electorate
D. there is a close alignment between class background and party preference

830. The rise of new social movements indicates that:
A. people vote according to pragmatic issues and concerns
B. consumer identities are more important than class identities
C. personal, cultural and environmental issues can mobilize political consciousness just as much as economic interests
D. all of the above