461. Sutherland’s Differential Association theory emphasizes that crime and deviance are basically______________?
A. due to poor parenting
B. learned
C. psychotic
D. biological
E. the result of being labelled

462. According to Strain theory, retreatants are likely to engage in what type of deviant activity ?
A. Sexual assault
B. terrorism
C. counterfeiting
D. drug abuse
E. robbery

463. The sociologist responsible for the modern-day adaptation of strain theory is______________?
A. Weber
B. Cohen
C. Marx
D. Merton
E. Chambliss

464. Biological positivists have tended to focus on what type of crime ?
A. Violent
B. juvenile
C. drug-related
D. white collar

465. The rise in patriotism following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, is an example of what function of deviance ?
A. Warning
B. Solidarity
C. Unification
D. Authoritarian
E. Boundary setting

466. According to Quinine, crimes of “domination and repression” are committed by ______________?
A. People who aspire to the upper class
B. The ruling elite
C. white collar businessmen
D. gang members
E. the lower socio-economic strate

467. The classic sociological study of two juvenile groups called the “Saints” and the “Roughnecks” was conducted by______________?
A. Chambliss
B. Lynch
C. Merton
D. Bentham
E. Turk

468. Punishments, or negative sanctions, are especially important at the _______ level?
A. informal
B. societal
C. traditional
D. formal
E. adolescent

469. Sociological definitions of deviance consist of behaviors, beliefs, and_______________?
A. attributes
B. realities
C. Choices
D. records
E. Conditions

470. Which of the following in NOT associated with functionalism ?
A. Talcott Parsons
B. Ralf Dahrendorf
C. Emile Durkheim
D. Robert Merton