881. Which of the following was not part of Weber’s ideal type of bureaucracy?
A. impersonal rules
B. extensive paperwork
C. hierarchy of officials
D. Salaries

882. According to Foucault, carceral organizations:
A. emphasised human relations and employee satisfaction
B. increased the amount of power held by managers
C. stripped inmates of their previous identities
D. isolated people and put them under surveillance

883. Disciplinary power was exercised in the 19th century factories by:
A. the use of corporal punishment by employers
B. excluding women from participating in waged labour
C. punctuality, uninterrupted work and the threat of dismissal
D. making routine tasks less monotonous

884. Scientific management involved:
A. the subdivision of labour into small tasks
B. the measurement and specification of work tasks
C. motivation and rewards for productivity
D. all of the above

885. In the debate about the ‘managerial revolution’, John Scott (1997) argued that:
A. owners still exercised control through groups of shareholders and interlocking directorships
B. ownership and management were becoming increasingly separate functions
C. the techniques of scientific management were overly bureaucratic and inefficient
D. managers were becoming dissatisfied with their working conditions and planned to overthrow the owners of businesses

886. The alternative form of ‘network organization’ means that:
A. work can be subcontracted out to independent suppliers and retailers
B. business transactions occur only through electronic communication
C. the Japanese model is applied, through lateral networks of flexible roles
D. activities are redistributed equally between men and women

887. The human relations approach emphasized the importance of:
A. scrutinizing employees as they interacted with customers
B. teamwork, communication and employee satisfaction
C. strict control and discipline to ensure high productivity
D. providing therapy and counselling in the workplace

888. Mulholland (1998) argued that privatization changed the relationship between companies and managers in that:
A. flexibility was reduced by the introduction of detailed daily worksheets
B. the state had greater control than managers over production processes
C. ownership was transferred from small shareholders to senior managers
D. employment depended on performance rather than trust and commitment

889. The trend of decarceration involves:
A. community alternatives to imprisonment and institutional care
B. the increased use of imprisonment as the main form of punishment
C. transferring the management of prisons to private companies
D. decentralized organization due to the mobility of capital

890. Technological forms of surveillance have made it easier to:
A. access and exchange ‘private’ information about consumers
B. reduce prison overcrowding by the use of electronic tagging
C. monitor employees’ activities at work
D. all of the above


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