971. A minority group is one that is both disadvantaged and_______________?

A. has some sense of collective or group solidarity?
B. numerically small compared to the main social group
C. identifiably different from others in a society
D. holds views contrary to the social norm

972. The process of turning the class concept into something measurable is called_____________?

A. operational research
B. modus operandum
C. operationalization
D. operant conditioning

973. According to Wright some class locations are contradictory because______________?

A. their holders do not believe in the notion of class
B. they share features of the positions above and below them
C. there is disagreement about how to interpret them
D. they are impossible for sociologists to measure and classify

974. Arlie Hochschild,s The Managed Heart is an influential application of_____________?

A. emotional labor
B. symbolic interactionism
C. social action
D. symbiosis

975. Which of the following is NOT associated with functionalism ?

A. Talcott Parsons
B. Ralf Dahrendorf
C. Emile Durkheim
D. Robert Merton

976. Which one of the following is NOT associated with the materialist conception of history ?

A. the mode of production
B. the motor of history
C. the history of class struggle
D. the spirit of capitalism

977. Marx said that the development of the labor movement through factory-based production would turn the working class into____________?

A. a class in itself
B. a-class by itself
C. a class for itself
D. a ruling class

978. Mass-society theory suggests that_______________?

A. the content of the media is determined by market forces
B. the subordinate classes are dominated by the ideology of the ruling class
C. the media manipulate the masses as vulnerable passive consumers
D. audiences make selective interpretations of media messages

979. Weber defined a class situation as____________?

A. the exploitation of the working class by their capitalist employers
B. a social groups consciousness of their status and life chances
C. a person’s position in the capital product and labor markets based on their economic resources
D. the lifestyle of a social class as defined by patterns of consumption

980. The capitalist class of the mid-twentieth century were said to join the upper class because them___________?

A. Participated in the same leisure pursuits and events of the social calendar
B. emulated the lifestyle and cultural values of the traditional aristocracy
C. owned companies and financial assets that generated wealth through corporations
D. had direct personal ownerships of land and businesses as physical assets


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