861. The theory of development which suggests that societies move from traditional to modern, industrial forms of organization is called:
A. Westernization theory
B. Modernization theory
C. Industrialization theory
D. Dependency theory

862. Frank (1967) made the claim that ‘underdeveloped’ societies were:
A. insufficiently involved in the international capitalist economy
B. reluctant to surrender their traditional ways of life
C. economically dependent on the wealthy countries that exploited them
D. the ‘metropoles’ to which ‘satellite’ countries were attached

863. Which of the following is not a feature of globalization?
A. an increasing awareness of the world as a whole
B. the extended power of nation states
C. the destruction of distance through communications technologies
D. the stretching of social relations beyond national boundaries

864. The capitalist world economy is what Wallerstein (1974) would call a ‘world system’. This term refers to:
A. a means of transporting money between different areas of a country
B. an empire with a bureaucratic administration but no political centre
C. an awareness of risks and dangers that affect the environment as a whole
D. a unit with a division of labour that extends across ethnic and cultural groups

865. The use of ‘indentured labour’ in the nineteenth century involved:
A. people being transported to the British colonies and forced to work for one employer under poor conditions
B. the sale of African people through the slave trade in the ‘Atlantic triangle’
C. selecting the most skilled workers in factories to promote their employer’s company overseas
D. extracting the teeth of the laziest workers to stop them from talking

866. War became possible between nation states in the nineteenth century because:
A. the world was divided into several rival overseas empires
B. industrialization provided better transport, technology and administration
C. there was intense economic, political and military competition
D. all of the above

867. Economic aid has largely failed to promote modernization in the developing countries because:
A. there are no clearly defined projects into which the money can be directed
B. the United Nations has refused to call on rich countries to provide it
C. debt repayments with interest can be greater than the amount of money received
D. debt repayments with interest can be greater than the amount of money received

868. The term ‘over-urbanization’ means that:
A. life in modern Western cities is so far removed from that of the Third World that we find it difficult to understand these societies
B. in poorer countries, the rapidly developing cities drain resources from the rural areas
C. the extent to which urbanization affects development has been exaggerated
D. governments are so preoccupied with urbanization in the West that they forget to attend to problems in the Third World

869. Which of the following is not a consequence of global tourism?
A. decreased rates of prostitution and sex tourism
B. developing countries can depend on it as a crucial source of income
C. the exploitation of cheap, unregulated labour in poor countries
D. we have become more aware of ‘other’ societies and ways of living

870. Environmentalist social movements are global in the sense that:
A. they increase our awareness of risks that affect the whole planet
B. they appeal to universal values and human rights
C. they use global media to generate publicity
D. all of the above

 

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