911. Mass-society theory suggests that:
A. the content of the media is determined by market forces
B. the subordinate classes are dominated by the ideology of the ruling class
C. the media manipulate ‘the masses’ as vulnerable, passive consumers
D. audiences make selective interpretations of media messages

912. The term ‘culture industry’, used by members of the Frankfurt School, referred to:
A. the globalization of culture through new technologies
B. the way in which cultural products were bought and sold for profit
C. the development of subcultures and counter-cultures in society
D. the way in which industrialization had created new means of communication

913. The media-themes model of media influence claims that:
A. audiences selectively interpret what they want to hear
B. content analysis is the best way to identify the themes covered by the media
C. audiences passively absorb whatever messages they are given
D. social interaction reinforces the ideas and images that audiences select

914. The print revolution of the nineteenth century resulted in:
A. mass production, mass circulation, and the decline of serious content
B. the public ownership of newspapers as a shared resource
C. more people going to the cinema as a new leisure activity
D. a reduction of ‘virtual communities’ on the Internet

915. Pilcher (1999) identified soap operas as a ‘feminine genre’ of media because:
A. most of the characters in soap operas are women
B. they represent images of women as both domesticated and independent
C. they alienate women and appeal to an audience of men
D. female television producers are most likely to work in this area

916. A moral panic occurs when:
A. the media exaggerate reports of deviant groups, generating hostile reactions
B. children watch violent or sexually explicit films and then copy the behaviour
C. audiences challenge the ethnic stereotypes represented by the media
D. elitists express concern with the Americanization of culture

917. Post-Fordist forms of media production and consumption involve:
A. the mass production of standardized products for passive audiences
B. television based on producer-broadcaster rather than publisher-broadcaster models
C. a diverse range of products aimed at niche markets
D. increasing numbers of advertisements for motoring and car-related products

918. Walt Disney, Sony and Time Warner are examples of:
A. transnational corporations
B. multi-media empires
C. ownership concentrated within one medium
D. government-owned companies

919. The effect of the Internet upon the public sphere has been to:
A. repress it, by promoting only the interests of elite groups
B. revive it, by reaffirming a commitment to freedom of speech
C. reproduce it, by emphasizing face-to-face contact with peer groups
D. replace it with a superior form of communication

920. Sreberny-Mohammadi (1996) argues that national cultures can resist American cultural domination of the media by:
A. domesticating its content, including more ‘home-produced’ programmes
B. controlling the distribution of imported products by banning satellite dishes
C. creating ‘reverse flows’ of their own programmes back to imperial societies
D. all of the above