331. How has Grace Davie (1994) characterized the general religious position within Western Europe ?
A. religious pluralism with many gods
B. believing without belonging
C. secularization against religion
D. belonging without believing

332. Weber,s famous study The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1904/5) was part of a larger project to study what ?
A. Christianity,s influence in the West
B. the influence of the world religions on social development
C. how salvation beliefs have shaped the modern world economy
D. the impact of capitalism on the world religions

333. Ludwig Feuerbach,s views on the alienation involved in transferring human values and ideas onto gods and spirits as distinct from human societies influenced the ideas of which classical sociologist ?
A. Max Weber
B. Emile Durkheim
C. Vilfredo Pareto
D. Karl Marx

334. The teacher-expectancy effect is most closely associated with the_______________?
A. functionalist perspective
B. conflict perspective
C. interactionist perspective
D. anomie theory

335. Which one of the following is the most basic manifest function of education ?
A. bestowing status
B. transmitting knowledge
C. promoting social and political change
D. all of the above

336. Religion defines the spiritual world and gives meaning to the divine These are ___________ functions or religion?
A. manifest
B. latent
C. positive
D. negative

337. Max Weber,s pioneering work The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is an example of_______________?
A. macro-level analysis
B. macro-level analysis
C. resurgent fundamentalism
D. the interactionist approach to religion

338. Which of the following -perhaps the first sociologist to recognize the critical importance of religion in human societies stressed the social impact of religion ?
A. Max Weber
B. Emile Durkheim
C. Karl Marx
D. Talcott Parsons

339. The shift form civil religion to common religion means that________________?
A. the increasing bureaucracy of the state has made religion only a marginal part of our lives
B. despite the weakening of traditional authority our everyday lives and common sense remain shaped by religious beliefs and values
C. religious participation in collective worship may have declined but people still practice their faiths in private
D. people are much more likely to discuss their religious beliefs in public informal settings

340.  An ecclesia is___________________?
A. a religious organization that claims total spiritual authority over its members
B. a church organized around voluntary rather than compulsory membership
C. a sect or cult with a very small following
D. a hierarchy of priests or other spiritual leaders