871. Weber (1919) said that the state’s monopoly of the use of force was legitimated by:
A. charismatic authority
B. rational-legal authority
C. traditional authority
D. value-rational authority

872. The market model of state welfare is based on the principle of:
A. individuals buying welfare privately, with some means-tested benefits
B. regular benefit payments to men as earners of the ‘family wage’
C. a universalist system of welfare for all, regardless of income
D. recommodifying social welfare through state provision

873. In the context of the labor movement in the nineteenth century, ‘incorporation’ meant:
A. including union representatives in processes of policy decision making
B. creating links between the state and corporate organizations
C. recruiting women into full time paid employment
D. including working class organizations in political bargaining and representation

874. Which of the following did the post-war welfare state of 1948 not aim to provide:
A. free health care and education for all
B. a minimum wage
C. full employment
D. universal welfare

875. In Esping-Andersen’s (1990) outline of three types of state welfare, the social democratic model involved:
A. loyalty to the state and traditional values
B. individualistic self-reliance but high unemployment
C. universalistic benefits and public sector employment
D. deregulation of wages and prices by the introduction of the free market

876. The terms ‘crisis of the 1970s’ is used to refer to:
A. declining profits and rising unemployment
B. the eradication of the welfare state
C. rising divorce rates and the decline of the traditional family
D. an unfortunate twist in fashion sensibility

877. Which of the following did Thatcher’s government not strive to achieve:
A. marketization and privatization
B. individual freedom, choice and responsibility
C. generous financial benefits for single parents, students and the unemployed
D. the rolling back of the welfare state

878. In the 1990 reform of the National Health Service, hospitals became:
A. self-governing trusts competing for purchasing contracts from health authorities
B. state-controlled providers, dependent on funding from the central government
C. increasingly detached from health authorities and providers of private health care
D. less inclined to run themselves efficiently, as demand for health care was falling

879. Law and order was privatized in the 1980s and 1990s through:
A. the expansion of private security companies
B. the building of private prisons
C. the introduction of market disciplines to measure police performance
D. all of the above

880. Which of the following was not defined by Giddens (1998) as part of New Labour’s ‘third way’:
A. the democratization of the family
B. putting an end to privatization
C. positive welfare: ‘a hand up, not a hand-out’
D. the strengthening of civil society


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