451. Which of these is NOT an example of target hardening ?
A. anti-social behavior orders
B. Steering locks
C. burglar alrams

452. Which approach framed their analysis of crime and deviance in terms of this preservation of power by the ruling class ?
A. New Left Realism
B. Right Realism
C. new criminology
D. interactionism

453. Merton describes types of response to a situation where there are widely socially endorsed values but limited means of achieving them. Which of his types describes an acceptance of the values but willingness to use any means to achieve them?
A. Conformists
B. innovators
C. ritualists
D. retrealists

454. What is defined as ‘non-conformity to a given set or norms that are accepted by a significant number of people in a community or society ?
A. criminality
B. deviance
C. recidivism
D. degeneracy

455. Which of the following is not a reason why corporate crime is more difficult to prosecute compared with individual crimes ?
A. victims may not realize that a crime has been committed
B. it is more difficult to apportion blame to corporate criminals
C. legal systems are founded on individual not collective responsibility
D. corporate offences cause less harm than crimes against an individual

456. Which of these is not a concept associated with Left Realist explanations of criminal subcultures ?
A. social exclusion
B. individual pathology
C. political marginalization
D. relative deprivation

457. Robert Merton’s ideas on crime and deviance make use of the concept of anomie. What does anomie mean in Merton’s work ?
A. Normlessness
B. meaninglessness
C. social strain
D. social adaptation

458. The “natural law” approach is essentially concerned with__________________?
A. civil law or torts
B. limiting the powers of wealthy businessmen
C. family law
D. limiting the powers of government
E. the protection of universal human rights

459. The key concept in labelling theory is that of____________________?
A. stigma
B. commitment
C. aspiration
D. motivation
E. acceptance

460. Which of the following was not identified as one of the four major social bonds in Hirschi’s Social Control theory ?
A. religiosity
B. commitment
C. involvement
D. belief
E. attachment


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