921. Bernstein thought that using ‘restricted codes’ of language disadvantaged pupils at school because:
A. this pattern of speech made them the target of bullying
B. they referred to explicit, context independent meanings
C. they prevented children from communicating outside of their peer groups
D. they involved short, simple sentences with a small vocabulary

922. Bourdieu attributed the reproduction of class to:
A. cults of the capital
B. capital culture
C. cultural capital
D. culpable capture

923. The ‘correspondence principle’ (Bowles & Gintis) suggests that:
A. schools prepare children for work by teaching them to be obedient
B. teachers and parents tend to have similar attitudes to learning
C. children who write lots of letters develop a better grasp of language
D. boys’ and girls’ educational achievements have recently become similar

924. The 1944 Education Act provided:
A. state elementary education for all
B. free secondary education for all
C. public schooling for those who could afford it
D. assisted places in public schools for those on low incomes

925. The tripartite system used the 11+ exam to select pupils for:
A. popular schools that lay outside their catchment area
B. private, public and comprehensive schools
C. grammar, technical, and secondary modern schools
D. polytechnics, colleges and universities

926. In the 1960s, comprehensive schools did not eradicate class inequalities in education because:
A. they tended to recruit pupils from the inner cities and traditionally working class areas
B. selective schools could still ‘cream off’ the most able pupils, while the comprehensives put children into ability streams
C. teachers in comprehensive schools used the restricted code in the classroom, whereas working class pupils used elaborated codes of speech
D. national testing and league tables made the new schools highly competitive and selective

927. Despite the introduction of a national curriculum in 1988, girls continued to face disadvantages in education because:
A. subject choice remained gendered at A level and in higher education
B. boys received more attention from teachers in the classroom
C. the hidden curriculum ensures that subjects like science are taught in gendered styles
D. all of the above

928. Smith & Tomlinson argued that:
A. differences in ethnic background were more significant than class or gender in predicting educational achievement
B. racism in schools undermined the move towards equality of opportunity for children from ethnic minorites
C. school character far outweighed ethnic background in determining educational success
D. gender differences in educational achievement could be attributed to inequalities of class

929. The introduction of market principles to educational policy in the 1980s resulted in:
A. more funding for students in higher education
B. the delegation of power and budgetary control to LEAs
C. a reduction in parental choice of school
D. increased state regulation through national testing and inspections

930. Which of the following policies did the New Labour government not pursue?
A. setting and streaming pupils by ability
B. parental choice of school
C. supporting LEAs that appeared to be failing
D. state regulation and control of the curriculum


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