341. Many sociologists argue that older theories of inherited intelligence and IQ tests have been discredited What concept did Gillborn and Youdell (2001) find had replaced of IQ in many Uk schools ?
A. skill
B. talent
C. capacity
D. ability

342. Which one of the following is not part of Bowles and Ginits,s (1976) Marxist thesis on schooling under capitalism ?
A. head teachers often encourage working class children to be ambitious
B. the structures of school life correspond to the structures of working life
C. education is a great divider not a leveler
D. schools provide the right kind of future workers for capitalist employers

343. What sociological approach argues that religions can be fruitfully understood as organization in competition with one another for followers ?
A. religious economy
B. religious culture
C. religious ritual
D. religious polity

344. In Which of these countries is Orthodox Christianity the dominant religion ?
A. Finland
B. Greece
C. Ireland
D. Spain

345. New age movements are an example of which type of religious movement ?
A. world-affirming
B. world-rejecting
C. world-enhancing
D. world-accommodating

346. Which term describes religious organization of a loosely knit and transient kind ?
A. church
B. denomination
C. sect
D. cult

347. Which of the following is NOT one of the ethical religions ?
A. Buddhism
B. Confucianism
C. Hinduism
D. Taoism

348. According to Durkheim religion separates objects and symbols into the sacred and which of the following ?
A. the profound
B. the profuse
C. the profitable
D. the profane

349. Who theorized that we might be witnessing the clash of civilizations ?
A. Giles Kepel
B. Amartya Sen
C. Samuel Huntington
D. Michel Maffesoli

350. According to Steve Bruce (1996) which of the following was a factor in generating strong religious commitment in the USA as compared to Europe ?
A. an evangelical strand of Christianity
B. a non-established church
C. a variety of new religious movements
D. late and very rapid industrialization


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