261. In which decade did HRM originate?
A. 1950s
B. 1970s
C. 1980s
D. 1990s

262. What are the ideas underpinning ‘soft’, ‘commitment’, or ‘high-road’ HRM practices?
A. Labour needs to be treated as an asset to be invested in
B. Employees are a cost which should be minimised
C. A lack of mutuality existing between employer and employee
D. A disregard for unlocking discretionary effort

263. Which consulting company is associated with the concept of talent management?
A. Price Waterhouse Coopers
B. Boston Consulting Group
C. Deloitte
D. McKinsey

264. Why are employers interested in employee engagement?
A. To encourage employees to trust their managers
B. To make a quick profit
C. Because engaged employees are more motivated and prepared to give of their best to make the firm succeed
D. To make employees work harder for less

265. Which of the following is a key HR role as defined by Ulrich et al (2009)?
A. Personnel administrator
B. Business ally
C. Payroll adviser
D. Organizational geographer

266. The term ’emotional labour’ is associated with which author?
A. Arlie Hochschild
B. Stephen Fineman
C.David Sims
D. Yiannis Gabriel

267. What does the term ‘financialization’ refer to?
A. A process whereby financial markets and institutions gain greater influence over economic policy, economic outcomes and the elevation of the financial sector over others.
B. Bankers’ bonuses
C. The economic downturn
D. Labour market insecurity

268. Why do some commentators claim that it is unlikely that the UK economy will become a knowledge economy?
A. The lack of IT education in schools.
B. Culturally low in intelligence.
C. Historically low levels of company investment into research and development.
D. Unions try to prevent knowledge transfer from management level to the broader workforce.

269. What measures are typically involved in the rationalizing of businesses?
A. Downsizing and Layering
B. Expanding and Layering
C. Downsizing and Delayering
D. Expanding and Delayering

270. What kinds of practices outlined below are typically associated with non-standard working and flexibility?
A. 9-5 working hours
B. The reduction in distinctions between standard and unsocial hours or standard and extra hours
C. Premium rates for unsocial hours
D. The voluntary agreement of unsocial hours working


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