291. Which organization is used as an example to illustrate a number of issues related to organizational context throughout the chapter?
A. Bass Taverns
B. Fullers Brewery
C. Glenmorangie Distillery
D. Thatcher’s Cider Company

292. According to Child (2005), ‘the vertical aspect of the division of labour provides…?’
A. for a specialization of tasks according to functional speciality, business focus, or geography.
B. for a specialization of discretionary decision-making responsibilities through preference of trade-unions.
C. for a specialization of discretionary decision-making responsibilities through specifying levels in a hierarchy.
D. for a specialization of tasks according to preference of management.

293. Boundary crossing is an activity that:
A. creates internal organizational conflict between different departments as they compete to generate new practices.
B. occurs when organizations advance into new areas of the market.
C. undermines the integration of an organization through the break down of the departmental boundaries.
D. is focused upon achieving internal organizational integration between various organizational roles and units in order to generate creativity and synergy.

294.Procedures provide for an important element of consistency in managerial?
A. Direction
B. Strategy
C. Recruitment
D. Decision-making

295. Why has the bureaucratic form of organization been fundamentally questioned?
A. The pressures of globalization have rendered it unsuitable.
B. Organizations are experiencing acute pressure to change and pursue innovation as a means of securing business growth.
C. Organizations have grown so large that it is almost impossible to create an effective bureaucracy to manage them.
D. Information Technology has made it redundant.

296. Processual change is best described as?
A. A complex ongoing dynamic in which the politics, substance and context of change all interlock and overlap.
B. A long term, step-by-step approach.
C. An ongoing development that follows a linear stage model.
D. A process that gives opportunity for all those affected by the change to be involved in directing the change.

297. Who famously adopted Taylor’s Scientific Management approach?
A. Ronald McDonald
B. Ralph Lauren
C. Henry Ford
D. James Dyson

298. The most pertinent criticism of the empowerment concept concerns:
A. the balance between customers’ wishes and efficiency.
B. the limited evidence for any shift towards a substantially more empowered workforce.
C. the over-empowerment of employees.
D. the limited theorising of the concept.

299. What is the most effective and insidious use of power, according to Lukes (1974)?
A. To forcefully prevent union action.
B. To dictate a method of work process.
C. To prevent any form of conflict arising in the first place.
D. To prevent workers from progressing to managerial levels.

300. As Morgan (1997:167) observes, ‘conflict arises whenever interests collide’. There are three broad perspectives we can draw upon to understand conflict in organizations. Which of these is not one of the three perspectives identified?
A. Unitary
B. Practitioner
C. Radical
D. Pluralist