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81. What is the term used to denote regimes which manipulate the electoral process in various ways, without resorting to blatant vote-rigging?
A. Illiterate democracy.
B. Imperfect democracy.
C. Illegal democracy.
D. Illiberal democracy.

82. Which of these is a defining characteristic of democracy?
A. That rulers govern in the interests of the ruled.
B. That rulers come from a wide range of social backgrounds.
C. That rulers are directly accountable to the ruled on a regular basis.
D. That the proceedings of the legislative body are televised.

83. Direct democracy is the system in which…
A. citizens choose their representatives in free and fair elections.
B. citizens are allowed to debate with their representatives in open public meetings.
C. citizens represent themselves in the decision-making process.
D. senior political leaders are known as ‘Directors’.

84. Democracy originated…
A. in ancient Greece.
B. in the US after freeing itself from British tyranny.
C. in France after the Revolution.
D. in the UK, after the signing of Magna Carta.

85. In democratic Athens, which of the following groups were not allowed to participate in politics?
A. Slaves.
B. Women.
C. Foreigners.
D. All of the above.

86. Powerful theoretical backing for democracy was provided by…
A. John Locke.
B. Thomas Hobbes.
C. Edmund Burke.
D. Jeremy Bentham.

87. Joseph Schumpeter argued that…
A. the existence of elites is incompatible with democracy.
B. democracy is meaningless with mass participation.
C. the democratic process should be understood as a competition between rival elites.
D. all of the above.

88. Deliberative democracy involves…
A. politicians consulting their ministerial colleagues before taking decisions.
B. every major political decision being taken after a referendum.
C. extensive public debate before politicians take decisions.
D. citizens consulting family and friends before voting.

89. Jean-Jacques Rousseau argued that…
A. people should be forced to obey their rulers.
B. the majority is always right.
C. generals are more trustworthy than politicians.
D. the general will is superior to the selfish interests of individuals.

90. The main argument of cosmopolitan democracy is that…
A. despite globalization, the nation state is as important as ever.
B. only people who have travelled outside their country of birth should be allowed to vote.
C. in the contemporary world, it is essential that global forces are brought under democratic control.
D. all nation-states should be replaced by a single world government.