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171. Institutions can be understood as…
A. regular patterns of behaviour that provide predictability and stability in social life.
B. both formal and informal in nature.
C. resources, as well as constraints.
D. all of the above.

172. Most significant political events are caused by…
A. institutional factors alone.
B. individual politicians.
C. political groupings.
D. the interaction of several different factors.

173. When did the modern European state begin to emerge?
A. Between 1600 and 1800.
B. In Classical Rome.
C. In Ancient Greece.
D. After World War II.

174. A key factor in the rise of the modern state was…
A. war.
B. the need for governments to raise revenue for various purposes.
C. the creation of a professionalized bureaucracy.
D. all of the above.

175. In public administration, what does the term ‘Weberian’ denote?
A. A bureaucracy composed of the ruler’s friends.
B. An inefficient bureaucracy.
C. A rule-based bureaucracy based on promotion through merit.
D. A corrupt bureaucracy.

176. Where was a formal separation of powers within government first introduced?
A. Britain.
B. Revolutionary France.
C. Japan.
D. America.

177. The Treaty of Westphalia was…
A. the document which ended the Hundred Years’ War.
B. a key landmark in the development of the Western state.
C. the agreement which established the European Union (EU).
D. all of the above.

178. Typically, outside Europe…
A. The nation has created the state.
B. The boundaries of the state follow tribal lines.
C. The state has tended to generate a sense of nationhood.
D. The legacy of colonial rule has quickly faded away.

179. What is a ‘patrimonial’ state?
A. A state in which men monopolies power.
B. A state in which key political actors exploit the system in order to enrich themselves and their allies.
C. A state in which the ruler is seen as the father of his people.
D. A state in which all forms of patronage are outlawed.

180. Which of these factors is not very significant when considering the strength of a state?
A. Clever politicians.
B. Economic prosperity.
C. A strong military.
D. Widespread consent from the public.