191. A major problem for many legislatures today is that…
A. they are not adequately representative of the electorate, particularly in respect of the proportion of women.
B. on many key issues they do not provide a reliable check on the power of the executive.
C. they lack legitimacy because electoral turnout is relatively low nowadays.
D. All of the above.
192. In the US, members of the Senate represent…
A. constituencies of roughly equal size.
B. the interests of big business, ignoring ordinary voters.
C. the interests of the poor, as opposed to the well-off.
D. constituencies of very different sizes.
193. Italy is an example of a
A. Reactive legislature.
B. Marginal legislature.
C. Vulnerable legislature.
D. Minimal legislature.
194. What are some of the problems with the Israeli system of proportionality?
A. It means that the views of minorities are ignored.
B. It concedes excessive power to small parties.
C. It makes it easier for candidates to rig elections.
D. It allows larger districts more say when it comes to elections.
195. Which Scottish islands currently form distinct constituencies?
A. Orkney and Shetland Islands.
B. Outer Hebrides and Shetland.
C. Mull and Arran.
D. Orkney and the Inner Hebrides.
196. What does ‘horizontal accountability’ mean?
A. Non-governmental organizations like the media hold governments to account.
B. Ministers who sleep too much are always forced to resign.
C. Executive decisions can be monitored, and if necessary overturned, by other executive agencies.
D. Only governmental institutions can hold the executive to account.
197. On Mezey’s classification, a marginal legislature is one which…
A. does occasionally play a significant political role, but can be ignored by the executive in certain circumstances.
B. holds its sessions in remote regions in order to play down the influence of opinion-shapers in the capital city.
C. is completely powerless and is always ignored by the executive.
D. defines the margins of the politically-possible, and can always check the executive when it exceeds its power.
198. What has the term ‘political class’ been used to designate?
A. The ability of some unusual people to exercise authority over voters by sheer force of personality.
B. A group of self-seeking office-holders and their allies who have not had much experience of life outside politics.
C. An assortment of self-appointed commentators who try to contribute to political debate through Internet blogs.
D. The bourgeoisie – the class which dominates politics under the capitalist system.
199. French revolution occurred in:
D. None of these
200. World population was one billion in:
D. None of these