651. With regard to apoptosis, which of the following is incorrect
A. it may be regarded as a normal physiological process
B. it is characterised by chromatin condensation
C. it often elicits a strong inflammatory response
D. it is the process by which ovaries atrophy in post menopausal women
E. it is characterised by cell shrinkage

652. With regard to the acute inflammatory response, which is the most common mechanism of vascular leakage
A. endothelial cell contraction
B. junctional retraction
C. direct injury
D. leukocyte-dependent leakage
E. regenerating endothelium

653. With regard to cellular injury, all of the following are reversible except
A. decreased ATP
B. intracellular release of lysosomal enzymes
C. decreased Na pump activity
D. detachment ofribosomes
E. ER swelling

654. With regard to the role of complement in the acute inflammatory response, which of the following is incorrect
A. C5a is a powerful, chemotactic agent for neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils
B. C5a increases leukocyte adhesion to endothelium by activating leukocytes
C. C3a and C5a are called anaphylatoxins because they cause mast cell degranulation
D. C3a activates the lip oxygenase pathway in leukocytes
E. C3 and C5 can be activated in inflammatory exudate by lysosomal enzymes

655. Coagulative necrosis
A. results from necrosis in which cellular enzymatic digestion predominates over denaturation
B. is characterised by a marked leukocytic infiltrate
C. is uncommon after myocardial infarction
D. usually occurs after irreversible ischaemic cellular damage
E. is not usually seen in association with caseous necrosis

656. Granulomatous inflammation
A. may sometimes be a component of the acute inflammatory response
B. indicates the presence of tuberculosis
C. consists, in part, of microscopic aggregates of transformed lymphocytes
D. is always associated with the presence of giant cells
E. may result from non-immune mechanisms

657. Removal of sutures from a wound at day 7 coincides with a wound strength of
A. 1 % of unwounded skin strength
B. 10% of unwounded skin strength
C. 50% of unwounded skin strength
D. 75% of unwounded skin strength
E. 100%, ie. same as unwounded skin

658. In a healthy individual over the age of 5 years, lymphocytes are mainly found in
A. bone marrow, thymus, spleen
B. liver, thymus, spleen
C. lymph nodes, spleen, thymus
D. bone marrow, spleen, liver
E. liver, spleen, pancreas

659. With regard to natural killer lymphocytes
A. constitute less than 5% of blood lymphocytes
B. require opsonisation to enable their killing of cells
C. have a prime role in defense against parasites
D. require prior sensitisation to be effective
E. have an innate ability to lyse tumour cells and virally affected cells

660. With regard to B lymphocytes
A. they constitute 50% of circulating lymphocytes
B. they are found in germinal centres in the red pulp of the spleen
C. they are genetically programmed to recognise specific antigens by means of antigen specific cell surface receptors
D. they release chemical mediators when attached to IgE Type I hypersensitivity reactions
E. they are not affected by HIV infection

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