901.Chronic pancreatitis
A.Has equal prevalence between the sexes
B.Is predisposed to by hyperlipoproteinaemia
C.Does not commence until adulthood
D.Always has an identifiable precipitant
E.Always can be diagnosed by elevated amylase

902.pancreatitis can be caused by all except
A.Coxsackievirus
B.frusemide
C.Henoch-Schonlein purpura induced ischaemia
D.Ascaris lumbricoides
E.Streptococci 

903.type I diabetes is characterized by
A.focal atrophy and amyloid deposits in islet of Langerhan
B.HLA –D linked
C.No anti-islet cells antibodies
D.Ketoacidosis rarely
E.Onset > 30yo

904.Type II diabetes is characterized by
A.Onset in early adulthood
B.50% concordance in twins
C.severe β cell depletion
D.Islet cell antibodies
E.Normal or increased blood insulin 

905.pathogenesis of type I diabetes is associated with
A.decreased insulin sensitivity
B.abnormal glukokinase activity
C.no antibodies found on diagnosis
D.auto immune insulinitis
E.twin concordance > 70%

906.The acute nephritic syndrome has all of the following except
A.Proteinuria
B.Haematuria
C.Hypertension
D.Hyaline casts
E.Oliguria

907.Metabolic alkalosis can be caused by
A.Administering sodium gluconate
B.Severe diarrhea
C.Uraemia
D.Excess aldosterone
E.Administering ammonium chloride

908.Regarding renal calculi
A.Increased urinary levels of pyrophosphates and nephrocalcin predispose to renal calculus formation
B.75% renal calculi are made of magnesium ammonium phosphates
C.only 5% patients having hypercalcinuria unaccompanied by hypercalcaemia develop calculi containing calcium
D.struvite stones are commonly associated with UTIs caused by urea splitting bacteria
E.cysteine stones typically occur in urine with high Ph

909.Renal calculus formation is associated with all of the following except
A.Ammonia formation by bacteria
B.Hypocitraturia
C.Vegetarianism
D.Nephrocalcin
E.Leukaemia

910.ARF
A.Is characterized by anuria and azotaemia
B.Results in anaemia due to lack of EPO
C.Results in haematuria and hypertension
D.Can be caused by adult HUS in postpartum women
E.Is most commonly caused by congenital anomalies of the kidneys

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