551. Which of the following is not an encapsulated bacteria?
A. Meningococci
B. Gonococci
C. Pneumococci
D. Hemophilus Influenzae type b
E. Staphylococci

552. Which of the following pairing of pathogen & pathogenic response is FALSE?
A. Spirochetes – Granulomatous inflammation
B. Viruses – Cytopathic/ cytoproliferative inflammation
C. Intracellular bacteria – suppurative inflammation
D. Clostridium perfringens – necrotising inflammation
E. Hepatitis B – necrotising inflammation

553. Which of the foJlowing statements regarding microbes is FALSE?
A. AJI viruses are obligate intraceJlular parasites.
B. Bacteriophage, plasmids & transposons are mobile genetic segments that encode bacteria virulence.
C. Bacteria lacks nuclei but otherwise contain same organeJles as eukaryotes.
D. Mycoplasma lack a ceJl waJl.
E. Chlamydia lack A TP synthesis.

554. Which of the following statements regarding bacteria is TRUE?
A. Gram negative bacteria has 2 phospholipid bilayer with a peptidoglycan layer.
B. Gram positive bacteria has I phospholipid iblayer covered by a peptidoglycan layer.
C. Most GIT flora are anaerobes
D. There are 1012 skin flora on human skin.
E. AlI of the above

555. How many bacteria exists are normal GIT flora?
A. 1012
B. 1013
C. 1014
D. 1015
E. 1016

556. Which of the foJlowing staements is INCORRECT?
A. All fungi are characterized by thick ergosterol waJl.
B. Systemic fungal infection only occurs in immunosuppressed host.
C. Dermatophytes are only confined to superficial skin layers.
D. AlI protozoa are motile organisms
E. All protozoa are transmitted by vectors.

557. Which of the following statements regarding respiratory tract flora is INCORRECT?
A. Mucosal damage in respiratory tract infection is usuaJly minimal.
B. Increased viscid exudation in airway is usuaJly the predominant manifestation.
C. Bronchociliary function is impaired.
D. 30% ofURTI is due to rhinovirus infection.
E. 2° bacterial infection may occur due to impaired bronchociliary function & airway obstruction.

558. Which of the following statements regarding upper respiratory tract infection is FALSE?
A. Rhinovirus bind to ICAM-l on respiratory epithelium, which is also the site that mediates T cell specific & antigen specific responses.
B. Rhinoviruses grows best at 37°C
C. Influenza A display significant antigenic drift & shift, resulting in epidemics of influenza.
D. Influenza hemagluttinin molecules mediate viral entry to respiratory epithelial cell.
E. Cytotoxic T cells are responsible for clearance of URTI viruses.

559. Which of the following rotavirus infection is FALSE?
A. Viral gastroenteritis can cause severe dehydration & metabolic acidosis in infants.
B. Rotavirus infection is most common at the time of weaning from breast feeding.
C. Rotavirus is associated with epidemic outbreaks of gastroenteritis.
D. Rotavirus invade & destroy intestinal villus epithelial cells.
E. Diarrhoea in rotavirus infection is due to reduced bowel sodium & water absorption.

560. Which of the following statements regarding measles virus is INCORRECT?
A. MUltiple serotypes of measles virus exists.
B. Measles is transmitted by droplet spread.
C. Measles rash is a hypersensitivity response to viral antigen in the skin.
D. Koplik spot is pathognomic of measles infection.
E. Measles virus has trophism for respiratory epithelial cell & mononuclear cells.