411. Which of the following is NOT the morphological feature of reversible hypoxic cell injury?
A. Blebs
B. Endoplasmic reticulum swelling
C. Dispersion of ribosomes
D. Cell membrane defects
E. Myelin figures

412. Free radicals can be initiated within cells by:
A. Absorption of ionizing radiation
B. Endogenous oxidative reactions
C. Metabolism of exogenous chemical such as CCl4
D. All of the above
E. None of the above

413. Free radical damages cells by the following method EXCEPT:
A. Lipid peroxidation of cell & organelle membrane.
B. Activation of intracellular lysozyme
C. Oxidative modification of protein
D. Breakage of nuc1ear & mitochodrial DNA
E. All of the above.

414. Which of the following enzyme is NOT responsible for the termination of free radial reaction?
A. Oxidase
B. Superoxide dimutase
C. Catalase D. Glutathione peroxidase
E. All of the above

415. Which of the following statements regarding chemical injury to cells is TRUE?
A. Water soluble chemicals act directly by combining to critical molecule component or cellular organelle.
B. Water soluble chemical does most damage to cells that metabolize them.
C. Lipid soluble chemicals are converted to reactive toxic metabolites which bind to membrane protein or lipids by covalent bond or form free radicals.
D. P450 mixed function oxidase in liver & other organs metabolize most exogenous & endogenous toxins.
E. All of the above.

416. Which of the following statement regarding cell necrosis is TRUE?
A. Autolytic digestion of dead cells tend to result in liquefactive necrosis.
B. Heterolytic digestion of dead cells tend to result in coagulative necrosis.
C. Karylosis of nucleus means increase basophilia & shrinkage of nucleus.
D. Karyorrhexus means fragmentation of shrunkened nucleus.
E. None of the above

417. Which of the following statements regarding apoptosis is FALSE?
A. Apoptosis may occur in viral hepatitis.
B. Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is an example of apoptosis induced by cytotoxic T cells.
C. Apoptotic cells are shrunkened & has chromatic condensation.
D. Apoptotic cells are phagocytosed by leukocytes
E. Apoptotic bodies are nuclear fragments & organelles tightly packed together by cytoplasmic membrane.

418. Which of the following statements regarding subcellular alteration in cell injuries is FALSE?
A. Autophagy is pronounced in cells undergoing atrophy.
B. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum hypertrophy occurs as an adaptive response to allow for better drug detoxification in chronic barbiturate use.
C. Mitochondrial number remain constant during cell hypertrophy
D. Megamitochondria is found in alcoholic liver disease.
E. None of the above.

419. Causes of steatosis includes:
A. Diabetes mellitus
B. Alcohol abuse
C. Protein malnutrition
D. Hypoxia
E. All of the above

420. Foamy macrophages can be found in:
A. Atherosclerotic plaque.
B. Sites of inflammation & necrosis
C. Xanthomas
D. Cholesterolosis
E. All of the aboveĀ