751. In ATN, tubular epithelium regenerates within:
A. 1-2 days
B. 5-10 days
C. 10-20 days
D. 1-3 months
E. none of the above

752. Acute tubular necrosis can be due to:
A. tetracycline
B. cis-platinum
C. heavy metal
D. carbon tetrachloride
E. all of the above

753. In acute renal failure, the following occur EXCEPT:
A. Hypotension
B. Hyperkalaemia
C. Hyponatraemia
D. Metabolic acidosis
E. Hyperventilation

754. The most common cause of chronic renal failure is:
A. diabetes mellitus
B. hypertension
C. glomerulonephritis
D. excessive analgesia intake
E. polycystic kidney disease

755. Serious clinical symptoms of chronic renal failure do NOT occur until functional nephron reduces by over:
A. 30% normal
B. 50% normal
C. 70% normal
D. 90% normal
E. none of the above

756. Compensatory changes in chronic renal failure include:
A. hypertrophy of surviving nephrons
B. systemic hypertension
C. reduced tubular reabsorption of water & solutes in the surviving nephrons
D. all of the above
E. none of the above

757. The plasma level of the following substance is first to increase in renal failure:
A. potassium
B. creatinine
C. sodium
D. hydrogen
E. phosphate

758. The most common organism in pyelonephritis is:
A. E. coli
B. Proteus
C. Enterococcus faecalis
D. Pseudomonas
E. All of the above

759. In pyelonephritis
A. All are due to ascending infection from lower urinary tract
B. Renal cortical function is more seriously impaired than renal medullary function
C. It is associated with polyuric renal failure
D. It is always associated with vesicoureteric reflux
E. All of the above

760. The following does NOT occur in chronic renal failure:
A. Hypertension can always be adequately controlled with fluid restriction alone
B. Specific gravity (SG) of urine is low
C. Hemoglobin may reduce to 60gIL unless exogenous erythropoietin or transfusion is given. D. Secondary hyperparathyroidism occurs as a result of hyperphosphatasemia
E. All of the above