881.with regard to tumours
A.dysplasia always progresses to cancer
B.cystic teratomas are malignant
C.squamous papillomas are benign
D.the presence of mitoses indicates neoplasia
E.hypochromasia is characteristic of anaplasia

A.Unequivocally proves malignancy
B.Is proven by LN enlargement adjacent to a tumour
C.Of breast cancer is usually to supraclavicular LN
D.Is the commonest presentation of melanoma
E.All of the above

883.The most common cause of cancer death in women is
A.Colorectal cancer
B.Lung cancer
C.Pancreatic cancer
D.Breast cancer
E.Lymphoproliferative tumours

884.The following viruses are considered to be oncogenic
A.Hepatitis B
B.Hepatitis C
E.All of the above

885.Features that help differentiate benign from malignant tumours include all except
A.The degree of both morphological and functional differentiation of the cells
B.The number of mitoses
C.The presence or absence of a capsule
D.The number of cells per unit area
E.The formation of multinucleate giant cells

886.concerning carcinogenesis
A.most benign neoplasms, given enough time, will undergo malignant transformation
B.anti-oncogenes are growth suppressed proto-oncogenes
C.non-lethal genetic damage has little to do with carcinogenesis
D.proto-oncogenes may become oncogenes by retroviral transduction (v-oncs) or by influences that alter their behaviour in situ, thereby converting them into cellular oncogenes (c-oncs)
E.chromosomal translocation usually results in underexpression of proto-oncogenes

887.Which is correct
A.Spontaneous mutation is the most common process leading to tumour formation
B.Genes that regulate apoptosis are not involved in tumour formation
C.Some organs liberate chemoattractants that tend to recruit tumour cells to the site
D.Substances which are highly mutagenic are labeled tumour promoters
E.All cell types are equally susceptible to radiation-induced cancer formation

888.Malignant lymphoma include all of the following except
A.Hodgkin’s lymphoma
B.Reed-Sternberg giant cell lymphoma
C.Mycosis fungoides
E.Burkitt’s lymphoma

889.Regarding oncogenes
A.Their products are associated with metaplasia
B.Proto-oncogenes are involved with normal cell growth and differentiation
C.Proto-oncogenes are activated by one of 4 different mechanisms
D.40% of all human tumours carry mutated H-ras or K-ras oncogenes
E.fibroblast growth factors play a role in SCC of the lung

890.Regarding malignant neoplasms
A.Breast cancer is the commonest cause of death in females 55-74yo
B.There is no familial clustering of ovarian cancer
C.There is reasonable evidence available linking benzene with lung cancer
D.Rates of lung cancer have doubled in the last 40 years
E.Brain tumours are the most common cancerous cause of death in the under 15yo

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