431. Which of the following is the least important risk factor for development of thrombus?
A. Acute myocardial infarction.
B. Smoking
C. Antithrombin III deficiency
D. Disseminated malignancy.
E. Prolonged rest in bed.

432. Which of the following regarding arterial thrombi is TRUE?
A. It typically creates a long cast of vessel lumen with a propogationallong tail.
B. The tail of thrombi often breaks off & embolizes to distal sites.
C. Most common sites are cerebral, coronary & femoral arteries.
D. Mural thrombi is most commonly found in the femoral artery
E. All of the above.

433. Which of the following statement regarding disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is FALSE?
A. Multiple thrombi develop in the microcirculation
B. Rapid consumption of platelets, prothrombin & fibrinogen occurs.
C. Bleeding diathesis is solely due to thrombocytopaenia.
D. Fibronogen degradation products (FDPs) increases due to rapid fibrinolysis
E. None of the above.

434. Causes of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) include:
A. Retained products of conception.
B. Meningococcaemia
C. Pancreatic carcinoma
D. Massive burns & trauma
E. All of the above

435. Which of the following statements regarding thromboembolism is TRUE?
A. Superficial venous thrombosis rarely embolizes.
B. Superficial venous thrombosis precipitates skin infection & venous ulcers.
C. 50% of deep venous thrombosis are asymptomatic & only diagnosed after embolism occurs.
D. Arterial thrombi in the aorta & heart may embolize to brain, spleen, kidneys & legs.
E. All of the above. 

436. What % of pulmonary vasculature needs to be obstructed before patient develops acute right heart failure?
A. 50%
B. 60%
C. 70%
D. 80%
E. >90%

437. Which of following statements are FALSE?
A. Embolic obstruction of small or medium sized arteries results in pulmonary infarct.
B. Multiple PEs can lead to development of pulmonary hypertension & chronic right heart failure.
C. 60-80% of PEs are clinically silent
D. More than 95% of PEs are from large DVTs in the popliteal, femoral or iliac veins.
E. Natural course ofPE includes resolution & organization of the emboli.

438. Common risk factors for arterial thrombo-emboli include the following EXCEPT:
A. AMI
B. Paradoxical embolism from venous thrombi
C. Rheumatic heart disease
D. Cardiomyopathy
E. None of the above.

439. Most common site of lodgement of arterial throboemboli is:
A. Lower limb
B. Upper limb
C. Brain
D. Kidney
E. Spleen

440. Which of the following statements are TRUE?
A. Amniotic fluid embolism occur most commonly during labour & immediate post partum period due to tear in the placental membrane & rupture of uterine or cervical veins.
B. Mortality rate of amniotic fluid embolism is about 85%.
C. Patients with amniotic fluid embolism develop acute pulmonary oedema, adult respiratory distress syndrome & disseminated intravascular coagulation.
D. Air embolism can also occur during delivery.
E. All of the above.

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