361. Concerning aortic dissection
A. Dissection is commonly associated with marked dilatation of the aorta
B. Hypertension is an important causative factor in 50%
C. Dissection is most common in areas of extensive atherosclerosis
D. The most common cause of death is valve disruption
E. The most frequent preexisting histology is cystic medial degeneration

362. Concerning venous thrombosis Pathology – ca rdiovascular
A. Genetic hypercoagulability syndromes are associated in 90% of cases
B. Deep pelvic veins account for 90% of cases
C. Appendicitis may lead to portal vein thrombosis
D. Migratory thrombophlebitis is a complication of pregnancy
E. Phlegmasia alba dol ens is commonly associated with paraneoplastic syndrome

363. Concerning congestive heart failure
A. There is a 50% 5-year mortality
B. The most common cause is valvular disease
C. Venous stasis is an uncommon finding
D. The heart is able to compensate by myocardial hyperplasia
E. The Frank-Starling mechanism is of little importance

364. Concerning cardiac hypertrophy in response to cardiac failure
A. Hypertrophy may occur as a result of hyperthyroidism
B. Hyperplasia may occur if hypertrophy is maximal
C. Pressure hypertrophy is characterised by normal or reduced cavity diameter
D. Volume hypertrophy may be associated with decreased wall thickness
E. Patients with severe aortic regurgitation usually have a normal sized heart

365. The following are features of right sided heart failure EXCEPT
A. Cardiac cirrhosis
B. Peripheral oedema
C. Pericardial effusion
D. Facial oedema
E. Anasarca 

366. Concerning atheromatous plaque in coronary arteries
A. Most commonly, a single artery is involved
B. Most patients with symptomatic IHD have lesions causing> 75% stenosis
C. Most clinically important plaques are distally located in the coronary arteries
D. Acute coronary syndromes usually occur as a result of stable plaque
E. Plaque causing greater than 95% stenosis is most likely to undergo acute change

367. Concerning ischaemic heart disease Pathology – cardiovascular
A. Death rate in the US from IHD has fallen by one half since 1980
B. Stable angina results from fixed coronary lesion
C. Unstable angina is characterised by complete obstruction of the artery
D. Vasoconstriction can result from increased release of NO
E. Thrombus is a poor activator of growth-related signals in muscle cells 

368. Myocardial infarction
A. is most common over the age of 65 years
B. is less likely in post menopausal women due to reduced oestrogen
C. is caused by plaque thrombosis in 60% of cases
D. is caused by vasospasm in 40% of cases
E. is more common in men except in the >85 years age group

A. Loss of contractility occurs within 60 seconds
B. Ischaemia lasting more than 10 minutes results in irreversible injury
C. ATP is reduced to 50% normal in 30 minutes
D. Coagulative necrosis is more important than apoptosis
E. Irreversible injury initially occurs immediately adjacent to the occluded coronary artery

370. Concerning location of coronary artery stenoses Pathology – cardiovascular
A. 90% are in the left anterior descending
B. 30-40% are in the right coronary artery
C. Occlusion of the RCA results in infarction of the left ventricle anterior wall and anterior part of the septum
D. 5% are in the left circumflex
E. Occlusion of the left circumflex results in infarction of the inferior-posterior wall of the left ventricle and the posterior septum

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