471. Functional deficits of macrophages in HIV infection include:
A. Impaired microbicidal activity
B. Impaired antigen presentation
C. Inappropriate or reduced cytokine secretion
D. Impaired chemotaxis.
E. All of the above

472. In HIV infected patients, there is impairment of:
A. T cell mediated immunity.
B. Humoral immunity
C. Antigen presentation by antigen presenting cells
D. Antibody dependent cytotoxicity
E. All of the above

473. Which of the following statements regarding clinical syndrome ofHIV is FALSE?
A. Initial anti-HIV immune response involves HIV specific Tcytotoxic cells
B. Increased levels ofHIV p24 antigen in serum occurs before appearance of anti-gpl20 antibodies.
C. All HIV infected adults suffers seroconversion illness 3- 6 weeks after exposure.
D. CD4 + T cell count at the early acute phase may be severely reduced.
E. None of the above.

474. Which of the following statements regarding the latent phase ofHIV infection is TRUE?
A. During the latent phase of HIV infection, the viral burden per CD4 + T cells & the number of infected cells gradually increases.
B. Rapidly reducing CD/ counts correlates with rapid disease progression.
C. There is reduction of CD4+ counts at about 50-100 cells/ fJ.l/year.
D. Persistent genearlized lymphadenopathy with constitutional symptoms signals the onset of immune system decompensation with increased viral replication.
E. All of the above. 

475. Which of the statements regarding Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma in AIDs is TRUE?
A. Almost all are of T cell origin.
B. Highest risk group are those with CD4 + counts < 50.
C. There is predilection for mediatstinal LNs.
D. All are due to polyclonal B cell activation by EBV.
E. All of the above.

476. Which of the following statements regarding AIDs is FALSE?
A. CD/ count < 200 cells/ ml is defined as AIDS.
B. PCP is the most common opportunistic infection in AIDs.
C. Cryptosporidiosis is the most common cause of diarrhoea in AIDs patients.
D. All mycobacterial infection in AIDs are due to reactivation.
E. Kaposi sarcoma is the most common neoplasm in AIDs.

477. Hypertrophy
A. occurs after partial hepatectomy.
B. is triggered by mechanical and trophic chemicals.
C. increases function of an organ exponentially.
D. is usually pathological.
E. occurs after denervation.

478. All the following are morphologic features of apoptosis EXCEPT
A. cell swelling.
B. chromatin condensation.
C. lack of inflammation.
D. phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies.
E. formation of cytoplasmic blebs.

479. Dystrophic calcification
A. is formed only in coagulative necrosis.
B. is formed by crystalline calcium phosphate mineral.
C. is rarely found in mitochondria.
D. rarely causes organ dysfunction.
E. does not occur on heart valves.

480. Irreversible cell injury is characterised by
A. dispersion of ribosomes.
B. cell swelling.
C. lysosomal rupture.
D. cell membrane defects.
E. nuclear chromatin clumping