371. Major risk factors for atherosclerosis include:
A. Obesity
B. Hypertension
C. Family history of atherosclerotic diseases
D. Type A personality
E. Oral contraceptive pillĀ 

372. Which of the following plasma cholesterol level identifies those at risk for atherosclerosis?
A. > 3.0 mmol/L
B. > 4.0 mmol/L
C. > 5.0 mmollL
D. > 6.0 mmol/L
E. No single plasma cholesterol level identifies those at risk.

373. Which of the following statements regarding hypertension is FALSE?
A. Diastolic hypertension increases risk of atherosclerosis whereas systolic hypertension has no correlation to atherosclerosis.
B. Increased mortality rate is not4ed with diastolic blood pressure> 70mmHg.
C. Hypertension is a stronger risk factor for atherosclerosis than hypercholesterolaemia after age 45.
D. Antihypertensive therapy reduces incidence for ischemic heart disease & stroke.
E. None of the above.

374. The decreasing order of frequency of distribution of atherosclerosis are as follow:
A. Coronary arteries> Internal carotid arteries> Abdominal aorta> Popliteal arteries
B. Internal carotid arteries> Coronary arteries> Abdominal aorta> Popliteal arteries
C. Abdominal aorta> Coronary arteries> Popliteal arteries> Internal carotid arteries
D. Popliteal arteries> Internal carotid arteries> Coronary arteries> Abdominal aorta
E. None of the above

375. Which of the following statement is FALSE?
A. Aneurysmal dilation of atherosclerotic blood vessels occurs as a result of pressure atrophy of the vessel wall with loss of elastic tissue.
B. Fatty streaks leads to development of turbulent blood flow.
C. Occlusion of blood vessels may occur with thrombosis of fissured or ulcerated atherosclerotic plaques.
D. Fibrous intimal thickening tend to occur at the bifurication point of the artery.
E. All of the above

376. Role of macrophage in atherosclerotic plaque does NOT include:
A. Production of cytokines & chemotaxins for leukocyte migration & adhesion.
B. Production of toxic oxygen species to oxidized LDL.
C. Binding to oxidized LDL via scavenger receptor
D. Recruitment of macrophage is responsible for growth of atherosclerotic plaque
E. Production of growth factors to stimulate smooth muscle cell proliferation & deposition of extracellular matrix

377. Sequelae of atherosclerosis include:
A. Calcification
B. Aneurysmal formation
C. Thromboembolism
D. Chronic ischemia
E. All of the above

378. Which of the following statements regarding cardiac failure is INCORRECT?
A. In acute cardiac failure, considerable renal fluid retention occurs within 24 hours.
B. Renal fluid retention may fully compensate for myocardial pump deficits, even with 40-50% reduction of pump ability.
C. Sympathetic stimulation occur within seconds of acute pump failure
D. Cardiac failure may occur within seconds of acute pump failure
E. All of the above

379. In compensated chronic CCF due to AMI:
A. Cardiac output is low
B. Cardiac output is high
C. Right atrial pressure is low
D. Right atrial pressure is high
E. None of the above

380. Causes of high output cardiac failure does NOT include:
A. Arterio-venous fistula
B. Acute myocardial infarction
C. Thiamin deficiency (Beriberi)
D. Thyrotoxicosis
E. All of the above

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