381. Contributing factors to cardiogenic shock include:
A. Hypotension
B. Reduced coronary perfusion
C. Reduced urine output
D. Increased right atrial pressure
E. All of the above

382. In acute cardiac failure:
A. Cardiac output increases
B. Capillary pressure reduces
C. Right atrial pressure reduces
D. Blood pressure increases
E. None of the above 

383. Reduced urine output in cardiac failure is NOT due to:

A. reduced glomerular filtration
B. activation of renin-angiotensin system
C. stimulation of aldosterone
D. stimulation of atrial natriuretic factor
E. All of the above

384. Cardiac reserve in a normal young person is approximately:
A. 0-100 % above normal cardiac output
B. 100-200 % above normal cardiac output
C. 200-300 % above normal cardiac output
D. 300-400 % above normal cardiac output
E. 400-500 % above normal cardiac output

385. Which of the followings statement is TRUE?
A. Peripheral oedema is a common occurrence in acute CCF.
B. Eccentric ventricular hypertrophy is a sequelae of hypertension is
C. Myocardial hypertrophy leads to increased metabolic requirement of myocardium
D. Fluid retention results in concentric hypertrophy.
E. All of the above

386. Causes of ischemic heart disease include:
A. Coronary atherosclerosis
B. Anaemia
C. Cyanotic congenital heart disease
D. Advanced pulmonary diseases
E. All of the above

387. Which of the following statements regarding ischemic heart disease is FALSE?
A. Most patients with ischemic heart disease have more than 1 lesion causing more than 75% reduction in cross sectional area of one or more epicardial coronary arteries.
B. Most atherosclerotic plaque is found in proximal 1st few em of major coronary artery.
C. Atherosclerotic plaques do not develop in collateral circulation
D. Coronary thrombus can contribute to atherosclerotic growth by activating growth signals in smooth muscle cells.
E. There is pronounced circadian periodicity for acute coronary events, with peak incidence at 9-11 am. 

388. Which of the following pairing of ischemic heart disease and pathology is FALSE?
A. Stable angina -> 75% stenosis in coronary artery
B. Unstable angina -> 90% stenosis in coronary artery
C. Transmural AMI – Atherosclerotic plaque rupture with complete occlusion by thrombus.
D. Sudden Death – Severe multivessel disease with plaque rupture & thromboembolism
E. All of the above

389. Printzmetal angina is characterized by:
A. ST elevation
B. ST depression
C. Is associated with exercise
D. Is not relieved with vasodilators
E. All of the above

390. Subendocardial AMI does NOT:
A. Involve inner 113 -Yz of ventricular wall
B. Involve diffuse stenosing atherosclerotic disease
C. Occurs when there is acute plaque rupture or thrombosis
D. All of the above
E. None of the above 

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