541. A mother who says “If you hang out with bums you will become a bum” favors which theory of deviance ?
A. Differential association
B. Anomie
C. Labeling theory
D. Gang imitation theory

542. In the metaphor of the “looking-glass self “the looking glass represents ?
A. the expressed judgment of one,s peers
B. the imagined judgments of others
C. the persons self-feeling such as pride
D. all of the above

543. Mead,s”I” ?
A. corresponds to Freud,s”ego”
B. emerged before the “me”
C. eventually completely merges with the “me”
D. all of the above

544. The emergence of the self as a result of interaction with others is a common thread in ALL BUT ONE of the following theories ?
A. Lookingglass self
B. symbolic interactionism
C. behaviorism
D. developmental theory

545. Which of the following refers to Piaget,s developmental theory ?
A. Personality development acts independently of physical development
B. Personality development proceeds in stages related to sensorimotor maturation
C. Behavior is the product of genetic predispositions
D. The most important influence on personality development is social class

546. Maturation for humans involves ?
A. socialization
B. the development of instincts
C. physical development
D. learning to be responsible

547. Utilitarian organizations are so named because they ?
A. produce useful things
B. serve the practical purposes of their owners
C. provide useful services to the community
D. provide material benefits in exchange for work

548. Americans who join voluntary associations are generally ?
A. poor
B. black
C. Catholic
D. urban

549. The struggle of women and ethnic minorities to change certain discriminatory practices concerns ?
A. role strain
B. ascribed statuses
C. master statuses
D. role conflict

550. Which of the following is NOT true of primary relations ?
A. they cannot exist in secondary groups
B. they are always harmonious
C. the family is the only source of primary relation
D. all of the above