341. Communism emerged as an ideology in reaction to conditions following____________?
A. the French Revolution
B. starvation in Ireland
C. the Industrial Revolution
D. the Protestant Reformation

342. Regarding capitalist industrial societies Marx asserted that______________?
A. the means of production are controlled by the masses
B. religion and philosophy are the foundations of society
C. property is unimportant in the modern state
D. they contained the seeds of their own destruction

343. Schizophrenia is_______________?
A. another name for split personality
B. a term meaning “to hallucinate”
C. applied to a number of disturbances for lack of any other label
D. a psychosomatic disorder

344. Index crimes include all but one of the following_______________?
A. manslaughter
B. robbery
C. moving traffic violation
D. aggravated assault

345. Studies of delinquent gangs indicate that____________?
A. gang norms are substituted for society’s norms in some cases
B. gangs are useful for society
C. gangs have no norms
D. none of the above

346. According to the cultural transmission theory deviance is learned through________________?
A. genetic inheritance
B. being labeled as deviant
C. close association with deviants
D. all of the above

347. To some degree according to some research heredity determines_____________?
A. the ability to control impulses
B. leadership abilities
C. sociability
D. all of the above

348. Deviant individuals______________?
A. set examples for others thus reaffirming existing norms
B. are invented by society to promote group cohesion
C. hinder group cohesion by disrupting stability
D. prevent social change from occurring

349. The theory speculating that every society develops a number of cultural goals for members to attain but that attainment is not possible for all is called the_____________?
A. anomie theory
B. differential association theory
C. deviant personality theory
D. focal concerns theory

350. Determining that a particular act is deviant may depend on______________?
A. the place time and circumstances
B. the social status of the person committing the act
C. the social status of those judging the act
D. all of the above