421. Similarities common to all cultures are called_________________?
A. pivotal institution
B. cultural universals
C. culture traits
D. culture complexes

422. An example of a temporary subculture would be_______________?
A. the MTV generation
B. vegetarians
C. monks in a convent
D. players of chess

423. Countercultures are_______________?
A. subcultures that refuse to assimilate
B. groups whose values differ from the mainstream
C. groups whose values are in explicit opposition to those of the wider societal culture
D. the most active subcultures

424. Cultural change is always________________?
A. fast and dramatic
B. slow and imperceptible
C. nether of the above
D. both of the above

425. If the daughter of a factory worker wants to become the president of the company for which her father works we may assume that______________?
A. she has a different reference group than her social class would indicate
B. her father has special connections to the boss
C. the daughter likes to daydream
D. she has been reading too many yuppie biographies

426. Faulty role performance ?
A. may create much stress
B. sometimes occurs by chance
C. could mean that another role is being performed well
D. all of the above

427. A reference group is a(n) ?
A. group of which one is member without having asked to be
B. formal or informal organization to which one belongs
C. hierarchical system in an organization
D. group to which an individual aspires to belong

428. Which is NOT an element of social structure ?
A. Norms
B. Concepts
C. Statuses
D. Roles

429. Role conflicts tend to occur______________?
A. over scarce resources
B. within aggregates
C. because we must fulfill several demanding roles simultaneously
D. all of the above

430. When we refer to how people really behave we________________?
A. use statistical norms
B. refer to the ideal norms
C. speak of mores
D. use folkways

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