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81. What is the ordinary geographical scope of jurisdiction?
A. Jurisdiction is ordinarily extra-territorial
B. Jurisdiction is ordinarily on the high seas
C. Jurisdiction is ordinarily territorial
D. Jurisdiction is determined by the location of the offender.
82. Which State ordinarily exercises jurisdiction in respect of crimes committed on board vessels?
A. The coastal State
B. The flag State
C. All States enjoy such jurisdiction
D. The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea
83. What is the effects doctrine?
A. It posits that jurisdiction exists only when it is effective
B. The effects doctrine serves to confer jurisdiction on the State which has an effective link with the harmful conduct
C. The effects doctrine serves to confer jurisdiction on the State sharing the nationality of the offender
D. The effects doctrine serves to confer jurisdiction to the State on whose territory the conduct produces effects
84. What is passive personality jurisdiction?
A. It is jurisdiction based on the nationality of the offender
B. It is jurisdiction based on where the offence was committed
C. It is jurisdiction based on the nationality of the victims
D. It is jurisdiction based on the country where the legal person was Registered
85. What is the protective principle of jurisdiction?
A. It is jurisdiction based on the harm to national interests by conduct committed abroad
B. It is jurisdiction in order to protect one’s nationals abroad
C. It is jurisdiction in order to protect international human rights
D. It is jurisdiction based on the nationality of the offender
86. What is the purpose of universal jurisdiction?
A. Its aim is to establish certain offences as universal
B. Its aim is to deter the commission of certain international crimes
C. Its aim is to provide jurisdiction to all States in respect of particular crimes
D. Its aim is to provide jurisdiction to all States in respect of all international crimes
87. Is piracy under international (jure gentium) law subject to universal jurisdiction?
A. Piracy jure gentium is subject to flag State jurisdiction
B. Piracy jure gentium is subject to universal jurisdiction
C. Piracy jure gentium is subject to port State jurisdiction
D. Piracy jure gentium is subject to nationality-based jurisdiction
88. Is the jurisdiction of international tribunals regulated by the same principles applicable to national courts?
A. The jurisdictional principles applicable to national courts are also common to international tribunals
B. The jurisdiction of all international tribunals is regulated by the UN Security Council
C. International tribunals share some, but not all, of the jurisdictional principles applicable to national courts
D. The jurisdiction of international tribunals is dictated solely by their founding treaties
89. Is extra-territorial abduction a ground for refusal of otherwise lawful jurisdiction by English courts?
A. Such abduction constitutes abuse of process and leads to a stay of proceedings
B. Such abduction gives rise to the abductor’s liability but does not lead to a stay of proceedings
C. The stay of proceedings under such circumstances would prevent the administration of justice in respect of international criminals
D. The courts may, but will seldom, stay proceedings in cases of extra-territorial abduction
90. What does it mean for a State to be sovereign?
A. Sovereignty means being recognised by all other States
B. Sovereignty means to be able to enter into treaties and join the UN
C. Sovereignty means freedom to determine one’s own affairs without external interference
D. Sovereignty means possessing the right to defend oneself