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51. What is a ‘treaty’ according to the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT)?
A. Treaties are all agreements concluded between States, international organizations and non-State entities (e.g. corporations)
B. Treaties are agreements concluded between States in written form and governed by international law
C. Treaties are both the written and oral agreements between States
D. Treaties are agreements concluded between States in written form governed either by international or domestic law

52. Should treaties assume a particular form?
A. Treaties should always be designated as such and assume a particular form
B. Treaties should always assume a particular form, no matter how they are designated
C. Treaties do not have to assume a particular form or designated as such
D. Treaties have to be designated as such, no matter what form they assume

53. Who has the authority to conclude a treaty on the part of States?
A. Treaties are concluded by the competent representatives of States. Heads of States, heads of governments, ministers of foreign affairs and heads of diplomatic missions are presumed to have such authority
B. Treaties may only negotiated and concluded by the heads of State and ministers of foreign affairs
C. Treaties are negotiated and signed only by the persons that bear the necessary ‘full powers’ and no person is presumed to hold such authority
D. Treaties are concluded only by members of the diplomatic missions of States

54. How the consent to be bound of a State may be expressed?
A. The consent of a State to be bound is expressed only by ratification
B. The consent of a state to be bound by a treaty may be expressed by signature, ratification, acceptance, approval or accession
C. The consent of a State to be bound is expressed by signature
D. The consent of a State to be bound is expressed by whatever means they choose

55. Do treaties bind third States, ie non-State parties?
A. Treaties may create only rights for third States
B. Treaties create both obligations and rights for third States
C. Treaties do no create obligations or rights for third States without their consent
D. Treaties do not create any obligations or rights for third States, even when the latter consent.

56. How treaties are to be interpreted?
A. Treaties are to be interpreted in good faith in accordance with the ordinary meaning to be given to the terms of the treaty in their context and in the light of its object and purpose
B. Treaties are to be interpreted only in accordance with the ordinary meaning of their terms
C. Treaties are to be interpreted in accordance with the intention of the parties, as evidenced in the preparatory works of the treaty
D. Treaties are to be interpreted only in light of its object and purpose

57. What does the principle ‘pacta sunt servanda’ mean?
A. Parties to a treaty should be cognizant of its terms and not misinterpret them
B. Parties to a treaty should safeguard the object and purpose of the treaty
C. Parties to a treaty should adhere to its terms in good faith
D. Parties to a treaty should not violate the most important provisions of the treaty

58. When a reservation is considered as invalid under the law of treaties?
A. A reservation is invalid when the majority of the State parties objects to it
B. A reservation is invalid only when an international tribunal says so
C. A reservation is invalid only when is incompatible with a peremptory norm of international law (jus cogens)
D. A reservation is invalid when it is incompatible with the object and purpose of the treaty

59. What is ‘material breach’ of the treaty?
A. ‘Material breach’ is a ground for the invalidation of a treaty
B. ‘Material breach’ is the repudiation or a significant violation of the treaty and serves as a ground for the unilateral termination of the treaty
C. ‘Material breach’ is an insignificant violation of a treaty
D. Material breach’ is a significant violation of the treaty which can never lead to the termination of the treaty

60. What does the ‘fundamental change of circumstances’ entail for the treaty?
A. A fundamental change of circumstances concerns the object and purpose of the treaty and it leads to its amendment
B. A fundamental change of circumstances has no bearing on the life of treaties
C. A fundamental change of the circumstances which constituted an essential basis of the consent of the parties to be bound by the treaty and which was not foreseen by the parties, may be invoked as a ground for terminating or withdrawing from the treaty
D. A fundamental change of circumstances leads to the automatic termination of the treaty

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