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131. Was the use of armed force permitted prior to the United Nations Charter?
A. Armed force was prohibited
B. Armed force was permitted with no restrictions
C. Armed force was permitted subject to few restrictions
D. Armed force was not regulated under international law prior to 1945

132. What types of force does Article 2(4) of the UN Charter prohibit?
A. Article 2(4) encompasses only armed force
B. Article 2(4) encompasses all types of force, including sanctions
C. Article 2(4) encompasses all interference in the domestic affairs of States
D. Article 2(4) encompasses force directed only against a State’s territorial integrity

133. What is the meaning of “armed attack” in Article 51 UN Charter?
A. “Armed attack” includes all types of armed force
B. “Armed attack” includes all high intensity instances of armed force
C. “Armed attack” includes terrorist attacks
D. An “armed attack” gives the right to invade the aggressor State

134. Is the ICJ hostile to the idea that an armed attack may arise through a series of lower intensity, yet cumulative, instances of armed force?
A. The ICJ was not hostile to the accumulation theory
B. The concept of an armed attack refers to a single attack, not multiple smaller instances of armed force
C. In the Nicaragua case the ICJ dismissed the accumulation theory
D. The ICJ has never addressed this issue

135. What is the meaning of proportionality in relation to the options available to the victim State?
A. The victim State may use the same means and intensity of force as the aggressor
B. The victim State may use any means to defeat and incapacitate the aggressor
C. The victim State may only use such means and force as it is necessary to defeat the aggressor
D. The victim State can do nothing without Security Council approval

136. Can armed violence perpetrated by non-State actors ever amount to an armed attack under Article 51 UN Charter?
A. The conduct of non-State actors can never amount to an armed attack
B. The Caroline case serves as precedent that non-State actors can under particular circumstances commit an armed attack
C. There is no precedent in international law for the proposition that non-State actors can commit an armed attack
D. Non-State can both commit an armed attack and possess a right of self-defence under international law

137. What was the particular advantage of UNSC Resolution 678 over a collective defensive action under Article 51 UN Charter during the Gulf War?
A. Resolution 678 allowed the allies to attack Iraq with nuclear and chemical weapons
B. Resolution 678 is narrower than the inherent right of self-defence under Article 51 UN Charter
C. Resolution 678 was faster to adopt and negotiate
D. Resolution 678 is broader because it authorised the use of force with respect to any matter threatening the peace and security of the Gulf region.

138. What is the meaning of collective security?
A. The right to self-defence by more than one nation acting in concert
B. The right of one’s allies to defend the victim State
C. The authorisation of armed force by the UN Security Council
D. The authorisation of peacekeeping missions by the UN General Assembly

139. What is the meaning of implied authorisation?
A. Presumption of Security Council approval of armed force when a State has been forewarned
B. Implicit authorisation on the basis of a specific number of votes by UNSC members
C. Presumption that all unlawful attacks will be subject to armed force by a resolution of the UNSC
D. In cases of repeated unlawful attacks the UNSC shall authorise neighbouring States to take whatever measures they deem necessary to rectify the situation

140. In what way is Responsibility to Protect (R2P) different from humanitarian intervention?
A. R2P is essentially the same as humanitarian intervention
B. R2P requires a call for assistance by the State in distress
C. R2P is less arbitrary because it requires some UNSC input and its primary objective is to avert a humanitarian crisis
D. R2P always involves armed force, whereas humanitarian intervention does not