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141. What is the function of “standard-setting in human rights diplomacy?
A. Standard-setting means putting forward binding legal standards
B. Standard-setting means merely proposing binding legal standards
C. Standard-setting means putting forward non-binding legal standards
D. Standard-setting means setting certain standards of conduct in human rights treaties

142. What is the legal nature of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)?
A. The UDHR is a multilateral treaty
B. The UDHR is a UN General Assembly resolution
C. The UDHR is a UN Security Council resolution
D. The UDHR is a declaration adopted by several States at an international conference

143. What is the meaning of cultural relativism?
A. Culture relativism posits that human rights apply equally to all without restrictions
B. Culture relativism posits that human rights have a cultural origin
C. Cultural relativism posits that the application of human rights is relative to the laws in each nation
D. Cultural relativism posits that local culture should validate the existence and practice of all human rights

144. What is the meaning of collective rights?
A. Collective rights belong to distinct groups of people
B. Collective rights are those that belong to particular groups as opposed to the individual members of the group
C. Minority rights are collective rights
D. Collective rights entail a right of the group as such as well as individual rights of the group’s members

145. What is the meaning of justiciability?
A. Justiciability refers to the possibility of enforcement of a particular right by the relevant rights holders
B. Justiciability refers to the just nature or cause of a particular right
C. Justiciability refers to the courts’ assessment of whether the non-enforcement of a particular rights
conforms to principles of justice
D. Justiciability refers to the obligation of a State to enforce a particular Right

146. What is a derogation?
A. Derogations are exemptions from particular human rights obligations contained in a treaty
B. A derogation refers to the ability of rights holders to bring a claim against the State for breach of an obligation
C. A State may suspend particular rights by means of a derogation in circumstances that threaten its existence
D. Derogations are enforcement clauses in human rights treaties

147. Would a reservation to the definition of torture in the ICCPR be acceptable in contemporary practice?
A. This is an acceptable reservation if the reserving country’s legislation employs a different definition
B. This is an unacceptable reservation because it contravenes the object and purpose of the ICCPR
C. This is an unacceptable reservation because the definition of torture in the ICCPR is consistent with customary international law
D. This is an acceptable reservation because under general international law States have the right to enter reservations to treaties

148. Which of the following is a treaty-based human rights mechanism?
A. The UN Human Rights Committee
B. The UN Human Rights Council
C. The UN Universal Periodic Review
D. The UN special mandates

149. Under what circumstances do human rights violations taking place outside the territory of ECHR member States fall within the remit of the ECtHR?
A. The ECHR applies outside Europe where human rights are violated by ECHR member States abroad
B. The ECHR applies extraterritorially in circumstances where a member State exercises effective control
C. The ECHR applies extraterritorially where a member State has contributed forces to a UN peacekeeping mission
D. The ECHR applies extraterritorially where human rights violations are taking place in former colonies of member States

150. What is the rationale for the exhaustion of local remedies in international human rights?
A. The local remedies rule aims to free up international tribunals to deal with the most serious cases
B. The local remedies rule aims to dissuade applicants abusing the system from filing unnecessary petitions
C. The local remedies rule aims on the one hand to restrict the volume of petitions to international tribunals while at the same time building up the capacity of local courts
D. The local remedies rule helps demonstrate that national courts are always better placed than international ones to deal with cases