**471. Systematic errors are those errors**

A. which cannot be recognized

B. whose character is understood**C.whose effects are cumulative and can be eliminated**

D. none of these.

**472. If the smallest division of a vernier is longer than the smallest division of its primary scale, the vernier is known as**

A. direct vernier

B. double vernier**C. retrograde vernier**

D. simple vernier.

**473. The least count of a vernier scale is****A. sum of the smallest divisions of main and vernier scales value of one division of the primary scale divided by total number of divisions of vernier scale****B. value of one division of vernier scale divided by total number of divisions of primary scale**

C. all the above.

D. none of these.

**474. On a diagonal scale, it is possible to read up to**

A. one dimension

B. two dimensions**C. three dimensions**

D. four dimensions.

**475. In case of a direct vernier scale**

A. graduations increase in opposite direction in which graduations of the main scale increase

B. smallest division is longer than smallest division of the main scale**C. graduations increase in the same direction in which graduations of the main scale increase**

D. none of these.

**476. Short offsets are measured with****A. an ordinary chain**

B. an invar tape

C. a metallic tape

D. a steel tape.

**477. Greater accuracy in linear measurements, is obtained by**

A. tacheometry

B. direct chaining**C. direct taping**

D. all the above.

**478. It is more difficult to obtain good results while measuring horizontal distance by stepping****A. up-hill**

B. down-hill

C. in low undulations

D. in plane areas.

**479. The distance between steps for measuring down hill to obtain better accuracy**

A. decreases with decrease of slope

B. increases with increase of slope**C. decreases with increase of slope**

D. decreases with decrease of weight of the chain.

**480. The correction to be applied to each 30 metre chain length along 00 slope, is****A. 30 (sec 0 ? 1) m**

B. 3-0 (sin 0 ? 1) m

C. 30 (cos 0 ? 1) m

D. 30 (tan 0 ? 1) m

**NOTEIF YOU THINK ANY OF THE MCQ ABOVE IS WRONG.PLEASE COMMENT WITH CORRECT ANSWER AND ITS DETAIL EXPLANATION IN COMMENT BOX.THANK YOU**