Repetition and Learning

 

MATERIALS

A PowerPoint presentation containing 20 words was used in questions from 4 separate categories of learning styles including: Simple Repetition Phonetic words, Lag-0 Phonetic words, Lag-5 Phonetic words, and Single Repetitions Semantic words. Two sheets of paper were provided to the participants. One sheet of paper was used for answering 30 questions. The other sheet of paper was used for recall.

PROCEDURES

Participants were given a sheet of paper with 30 “Yes or No” responses that they were instructed to answer using a PowerPoint presentation containing 30 phonetic and semantic questions. An example of the phonetic questions that were used is (“Does the word __________ contain the ‘r’ sound?). An example of the semantic questions that were used is (“Can you hold __________ in your hand?”). Participants were then given a second sheet of paper with multiple provided blanks and were instructed to recall as many words from the PowerPoint presentation in the blanks as they possibly could. The number of words that the participants were able to recall were then tallied up by the different categories of learning styles.

RESULTS

One-way repeated measures ANOVA was used

TO REPORT A ONE-WAY REPEATED MEASURES ANOVA USE THIS FORMAT BELOW:

 

“A one-way repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to compare the effect of (Independent variable) ____________________ on (Dependent variable) ______________ in _______________, _______________, and _____________ conditions. There was (a significant / not a significant) effect of the (IV) _____________, F ( ______ , ______ ) = ________ , p (= or < or >)  ________.” “_______ paired samples t-tests were used to make post-hoc comparisons between conditions. The first paired samples t-test indicated that there was a significant difference between single semantic (M = ________ , SD = ________ ), and single phonetic (M = _________ , SD = __________ ) , F (1,16) = 19.13, p < 0.001. The second paired samples t-test indicated that there was a significant difference between Lag-0 (M = _________ , SD = ___________ ) and single semantic (M = __________ , SD = __________ ) , F (1,16) = 8.62, p < 0.001. The third paired samples t-test indicated that there was not a significant difference between Lag-5 (M = _________ , SD = ________ ), and single semantic words, F (1,16) = 1.90 , p = 0.187, ns.”

 

Post-hoc analysis using sing. Semantic learning style as a reference category.

Significant difference between single semantic and single phonetic, F (1,16) = 19.13, p < 0.001

Significant difference between Lag-0 and single semantic, F (1,16) = 8.62, p < 0.001

Not a significant difference between Lag-5 and single semantic words, F (1,16) = 1.90, p = 0.187, ns.

Results confirm or deny hypothesis?

 

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