981. According to E. C. Tolman, there are two aversions: fright and pugnacity. Fright is avoidance of injury and pugnacity is avoidance of:
A. Interference
B. Affiliation
C. Motivation
D. Perception
E. None of the above

982. “Equivalence Belief’ is a connection between” a positively cathected type of disturbance-object and a type of what may be called:
A. An interfering object
B. A sub disturbance object
C. A motivating object
D. A goal-oriented object
E. None of the above

983. Who revealed that “Field expectancy” takes place when one organism is repeatedly and successfully presented with a certain environmental set-up?
A. E. C. Tolman
B. C. L. Hull
C. E. L. Thorndike
D. I.P. Pavlov
E. Guthrie

984. Dollard and Miller related Thorndike’s spread of effect to the:
A. Gradient of reinforcement
B. Biological constraints
C. Principle of preparedness
D. None of the above

985. Miller and Dollard are more concerned with:
A. Biological factor in learning
B. Social factor in learning
C. Physiological and Social factors in learning
D. Personal factors in learning
E. None of the above

986. Mowrer’s Sign learning comes close to Guthrie’s contiguity and his ‘solution learning’ corresponds to:
A. Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning
B. Kohler’s Insightful learning
C. Skinner’s instrumental learning
D. Thorndike’s trial and error learning
E. None of the above

987. Mowrer’s two-factor theory takes into consideration the fact that:
A. Some conditioning do not require reward and some do
B. Every conditioning requires reinforcement
C. The organism learns to make a response to a specific stimulus
D. Learning is purposive and goal-oriented
E. None of the above

988. When learning in one situation influences learning in another situation, there is evidence of:
A. Avoidance learning
B. Learned helplessness
C. Premise of Equipotentiality
D. Transfer of Training
E. None of the above

989. If learning in situation ‘A’ may favourably influence learning in situation ‘B’, then we have:
A. Positive Transfer
B. Negative Transfer
C. Zero Transfer
D. Bilateral Transfer
E. Neutral Transfer

990. If learning in situation ‘A’ has a detrimental effect on learning in situation ‘B’, then we have:
A. Positive Transfer
B. Zero Transfer
C. Neutral Transfer
D. Negative transfer
E. None of the above