961. Who propounded the expectancy theory of learning?
A. Guthrie
B. C. Hull
C. Tolman
D. Thorndike
E. I. P. Pavlov

962. Who said that any act is a movement but not vice versa?
A. J.B. Watson
B. W. Kohler
C. Guthrie
D. E. L. Thorndike
E. C. Hull

963. Guthrie believed that conditioning should take place:
A. After two trials
B. After three trials
C. After a single trial
D. After ten trials
E. None of the above

964. According to Guthrie, forgetting is not a matter of decay of old impressions and associations but:
A. A result of inhibition of old connections by new ones
B. A result of disinhibitions of old connections
C. A result of generalizations of stimuli
D. A result of discrimination
E. None of the above

965. The great learning theorist, Clark Hull was influenced by the moderate wing of:
A. Gestalt Psychology
B. Behaviouristic Orientation
C. Psychoanalytic Literature
D. Logical Positivism and by conventionalism
E. None of the above

966. Who defined “Need” as a state of the organism in which a deviation of the organism from the optimum of biological conditions necessary for survival takes place?
A. Mc Dougall
B. Clark H. Hull
C. E.L Thorndike
D. I.P. Pavlov
E. None of the above

967. According to Hullian theory, under the pressure of needs and drives, the organism undertakes:
A. Adaptive actions
B. Learning by foresight
C. Learning by hindsight
D. Transfer of training
E. None of the above

968. Hull believes that no conditioning will take place unless there is:
A. Food
B. Need Reduction
C. Puzzle Box
D. Secondary Reinforcement
E. None of the above

969. Who defined stimulus (S) in terms of physical energy such as mechanical pressure, sound, light etc.?
A. E. L. Thorndike
B. W. Kohler
C. B. F. Skinner
D. Clark Hull
E. E. C. Tolman

970. “Where a reaction (R) takes place in temporal contiguity with an afferent receptor impulse (S) resulting from the impact upon a receptor of a stimulus energy (S) and the conjunction is followed closely by the diminution in a need and the associated diminution in the drive, D, and in the drive receptor discharge, SD, there will result in increment, A (S →R), in the tendency for that stimulus on subsequent occasions to evoke that reaction”. Who has given the above definition of “reinforcement”?
A. Clark L. Hull
B. E. L. Thorndike
C. I.P. Pavlov
D. W. Kohler
E. None of the above

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