921. Thorndike’s work demonstrated another form of behaviourist learning, whereby organisms can be trained to display a specific behavioural response more frequently if the outcome of that behaviour led to the acquisition of a desirable reward. This form of conditioned learning is now referred to as
A. operant conditioning
B. classical conditioning
C. positive reinforcement
D. social learning

922. Bartlett, Piaget and Gestalt psychologists like Lewin and Zeigarnik are examples of key figures in psychology who challenged the behaviourist notion that certain processes play no role in determining human behaviour. Which processes are these?
A. biological processes
B. mental processes
C. environmental processes
D. sociocultural processes

923. A key weakness of behaviourist theories is
A. explaining human behaviour based on observations of animal behaviour
B. an overwhelming focus on cognitive processes
C. the use of self-reported data
D. its positive view of all human behaviour

924. Following criticisms of behaviourism, what was the new approach to exploring psychological phenomena to gain momentum?
A. cognitive science
B. psychoanalysis
C. transpersonalism
D. phenomenology

925. Which of the following is an example of an abstract structure that the cognitive approach considers underpins psychological phenomena?
A. attitudes
B. neuronal receptors
C. nervous system
D. hormones

926. One of the key methods that cognitive approaches to psychology utilize in order to link subjective mental phenomena to brain function is
A. implicit association tests
B. neurosurgery
C. extrasensory perception
D. cognitive neuroscience

927. Humanistic psychologists argue that in order to properly understand human nature, we need to take account of
A. subjective human experience
B. underlying mental disturbances
C. inherent gender differences
D. repressed animal instincts

928. Key figures in psychology who propelled humanism include
A. Laurel and Hardy
B. Maslow and Rogers
C. Pegg and Frost
D. Watson and Skinner

929. Which of the following does Rogers NOT list as a feature of a psychologically healthy person?
A. spontaneity and flexibility
B. creativity
C. a firm belief in his/her own importance
D. the will to follow his/her own instincts

930. The concept that modern psychologists will usually use techniques that best fit the problem they’re investigating is referred to as
A. expedient psychology
B. the path of least resistance
C. pragmatic psychology
D. the limited horizon hypothesis