911. What did Freud believe to be the cause of hysteria?
A. neurochemical imbalance
B. faulty cognition
C. unconscious content
D. negative reinforcement

912. Freud was the founder of a form of talking therapy that aims to help the patient to coax unconscious desires into the conscious awareness. This form of therapy is known as
A. behaviourism
B. humanistic therapy
C. transpersonalism
D. psychoanalysis

913. What is the key tenet of Freud’s psychoanalytic therapy?
A. all human behaviour is caused by the Oedipus complex
B. all human behaviour is caused by unconscious content
C. all human behaviour is caused by stimulus–response associations
D. all human behaviour is caused by interactions with the environment

914. One of the many means by which Freud analyzed the unconscious content of his patients included
A. interpreting dreams
B. gradual exposure
C. cognitive restructuring
D. interpreting non-verbal behaviour

915. Freud’s early ideas regarding the motivation behind human behaviour had important implications for the development of which branch of psychology?
A. therapeutic psychology
B. cognitive psychology
C. atypical psychology
D. abnormal psychology

916. William James’s ideas regarding psychological phenomena centred around the idea of
A. a stream of consciousness
B. the sea of the subconscious
C. a stream of subconsciousness
D. a sea of consciousness

917. Two key ideas defined James’s concept of a stream of consciousness: Consciousness has evolved to be ______, in that people choose between alternative courses of action. Consciousness is also ______, in that these choices are important in helping the individual to adapt to his/her environment.
A. selective, functional
B. functional, selective
C. transcendent, predetermined
D. predetermined, transcendent

918. The debate over whether our behaviour and thinking are controlled by physiological, unconscious and environmental forces versus being able to behave and think as we wish, is referred to as
A. the reductionist-determinism debate
B. the freewill-determinism debate
C. the biological-freewill debate
D. the freewill-reductionism debate

919. What was the goal of the behaviourist approach to psychology?
A. to use self-reports of experiences
B. to objectively predict behaviour
C. to condition humans to salivate upon the mere presentation of food
D. to demonstrate the role of freewill in human behaviour via controlled experiments

920. Pavlov’s work in demonstrating behaviourist principles regarding the relationship between stimuli and behavioural responses became known as
A. operant conditioning
B. associative learning
C. classical conditioning
D. shaping