441. Effectors and receptor cells are different in:
A. Their composition and speed of conduction
B. The direction in which they carry nerve impulses
C. The corresponding branch of the nervous system to which they belong
D. The effectors never connect with the brain, while receptors receive information from the brain.
E. None of these

442. Three dimensional perception of the world is referred to as:
A. Stereoposis
B. Stroboscopy
C. Multiple perspectives
D. Normal vision
E. None of these

443. Perpetual constancy refers to:
A. Perception of an object remaining the same even when our immediate sensation of the object changes.
B. Perceptual tendency to group objects together on the basis of their similarity.
C. Perception of an object’s changing even though the object stays the same
D. Tendency to close up, incomplete objects into already existing perceptual shapes
E. None of these

444. Gestaltists refer to the fact that we perceive smooth flowing forms more readily than discrete forms as:
A. Similarity
B. Symmetry
C. Holistic perception
D. Continuity
E. None of these

445. Classical conditioning is a process whereby:
A. Certain response result from certain stimulus presentations
B. The CS is always presented before the UCS
C. Actions that are reward tend to the strengthened
D. Learning occurs when a stimulus is paired with a certain response
E. None of these

446. Edward Tolman’s experiments with rats showed that:
A. Learning could be achieved without reinforcement
B. Rats could learn second order conditioning in the absence of food
C. All rats behaviour could be analyzed by stimulus – response contingencies
D. The law of effect was not valid in all animals
E. None of these

447. Albert’s Bandura’s social learning theory holds that:
A. Learning is best in group settings
B. Learning can be achieved by observing and modeling another person’s behaviour
C. Mere exposure to an aggressive scene always later elicits aggressive behaviour
D. Social learning takes place at an unconscious level
E. None of these

448. According to Marlow’s hierarchy of needs, individuals:
A. May bypass a level in their quest for self actualization
B. Must satisfy self-esteem needs before achieving belongingness and love needs
C. Always end their lives self actualized
D. Must satisfy esteem needs before the process of self-actualization
E. None of these

449. Research by Edward Deci has suggested that extrinsic motivators are more effective when they are:
A. Stated .up front so that the individual knows what he or she will be receiving
B. Tangible and easily identifiable
C. Received immediately before the task is accomplished
D. Intangible, such as verbal praise or smile
E. None of these

450. Goals can help us motivated by all the following except:
A. Focusing our attention
B. Encouraging alternative ways of achieving goals
C. Allowing us the freedom to be spontaneous in our activities
D. Mobilizing our resources
E. None of these

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